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Full text of "Hand-book of Volapük"

* 

INTERNATIONAL LANGl 



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HAND-BOOK OF VOIAPUK 

CHARLES E. SPRAGUE 



PM 

[ 8953 
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1888 
c. 1 
ROBA 



THE INTERNATIONAL LANGUAGE 






HAND-BOOK 



OF 



V O L A P ti K 



BY CHARLES E. SPRAGUE 



Member of the Academy of Volapuk President of the Institute of Accounts 



EMILY l.M'WTOSH 




NEW YORK: 
THE OFFICE COMPANY. 

LONDON: TRUBNER & CO 
CHIOAQO: S. R. WINCJ|lJ5,.L.Cr" ^GQrriiJ gY 



1888 



PRESERVATION 
SERVICES 
SEP 2 5 | 

DATE 




COPYRIGHT, 1887, BY CHARLES E. SPRAGUE 



TRUNK BROS., PRINTERS, 
NEW YORK. 



PREFACE. 



fT>HIS book demands no previous knowledge of any language, except 
English. While linguistic training would, of course, be a great 
assistance to the learner, yet in framing my explanations, in select- 
ing terms and in foreseeing difficulties, I have had in view the wants of 
persons who take up the study of Volaptik next after that of their mother 
tongue. These are the persons most to be benefited by an international 
language, and this is its natural place in a course of study. 1 have, there- 
fore, rigidly excluded all reference to any language except the two in ques- 
tion- -English, already known, and Volapiik, to be acquired. A fair 
knowledge of English grammar is presupposed ; therefore I have not 
wasted space in explaining the ordinary technical terms. 

There are excellent works on the subject in French, German and other 
languages, but translations of such works are very unsatisfactory to an 
American learner. He finds things taken for granted which are quite 
unknown, and things explained which to him are self-evident. I have 
tried to place myself in the attitude of such a learner, and to give him 
just the help he needs, and just at the point where he needs it. I have 
jested and modified my methods by experimental teaching. 

I have not followed the ancient custom of treating each part of speech 
by itself, but have taken up each modification in succession, a plan which 
seems to me preferable, at least in a language without irregularities. 

In the Exercises, few words are introduced, but many combinations 
are made of them, so as to give the greatest amount of drill in the inflec- 
tions. As English has almost no inflection, this feature is the strangest 
and most difficult, and requires the most practice. 

The Vocabulary will place at command over one thousand of the most 
frequently occurring words, besides a vast number of their derivativs 
which will be readily understood. 

I have made no changes in the system itself, but have tried to repre- 
sent faithfully what it actually is, following the authority of the Second 
General Assembly held in Munich. 

Upon the recommendation of the American Philological Association 
and of the London Philological Society, I have dropped the final e, mis- 
leading and unhistorical, from such words as "infimtiv," "feminin," etc. 

CHARLES E, SPRAGUE. 

Broad-way ', New York, 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

INTRODUCTION v 

How TO USE THIS BOOK viii 

SOUNDS AND LETTERS i 

PARTS OF SPEECH 4 

NUMBERS 5 

CASES 6 

PERSONS , 10 

GENDERS 14 

FORMATION OF ADJECTIVS 15 

FORMATION OF ADVERBS 20 

DEGREES OF COMPARISON 21 

TENSES 21 

PASSIV VOICE 23 

INFINITIV 23 

PARTICIPLE 25 

IMPERATIV .'26 

CONDITIONAL, CONJUNCTIV AND POTENTIAL 27 

INTERROGATE FORM 28 

FREQUENTATIV OR AORIST 29 

REFLEXIV 30 

PREPOSITIONS AND THE KIMIFAL 31 

SYNOPSIS OF INFLECTION 33 

USE OF PREPOSITIONS 34 

DERIVED PREPOSITIONS 35 

FORMATION OF INTERJECTIONS 35 

USE OF CONJUNCTIONS AND ADVERBS 35 

ORDER OF WORDS 37 

IDIOMATIC EXPRESSIONS 39 

DERIVATION OF WORDS 41 

COMPOUNDS 42 

PREFIXES 42 

SUFFIXES 44 

EXAMPLE OF DERIVATION 47 

VOTAMS FA LASAM VALEMIK TELID 48 

ABRAHAM E BALEDAN 49 

MODEL OF TRANSLATION AND GRAMMATICAL ANALYSIS 49- 60 

SPODAM 61- 63 

LILADAM 64- 66 

VOCABULARY 67-113 

KEY TO THE EXERCISES 1 14-1 19 



INTRODUCTION. 



VOLAPUK is designed to serve as a means of communication between 
persons whose native languages are not the same. Such a medium 
has long been regarded as desirable. The hope has often been 
expressed that one of the great national languages may, by common 
consent, be selected as a * universal language" ; but there is not the 
slightest probability that this great advantage will be voluntarily given to 
one nation, or that any one of the great powers can ever impose its lan- 
guage on others. 

Volapllk is one of numerous attempts at solving the problem of a 
common language. Without entering into a discussion of their merits, it is 
sufficient to say that no other attempt has ever passed beyond the experi- 
mental stage or been actually used, to any considerable extent, for the com- 
munication of thought. Volaptlk has now become so widely diffused that it 
can no longer be treated as a mere project, and some acquaintance with its 
history and the general principles of its construction will be desired by 
educated persons. 

This " world-language " was invented and first published in 1879 by 
JOHANN MARTIN SCHLEYER, a German, and a priest of the Roman 
Catholic Church, who had become a very accomplished linguist. The 
system is entirely his production, and has not been modified in any 
essential point. 

His aim was, first, to produce a language capable of expressing thought 
with the greatest clearness and accuracy ; second, to make its acquisition 
as easy as possible to the greatest number of human beings. He resolved 
to seek these ends by observing the processes of the many languages with 
which he was acquainted ; following them as models wherever they are 
clear, accurate and simple, but avoiding their faults, obscurities and 
difficulties. 

The material and the form, or the dictionary and the grammar, call 
upon different mental faculties. One's stock of words is retained by exer- 
cise of the memory. Therefore the radicals or root-words were generally 
so chosen by him from existing languages, that the greatest number of 
persons might have the fewest unfamiliar words to memorize. Since 
English is spoken as a mother-tongue by more millions than any other 
language he took from it more root-words, with or without modification, 
than from any other, or about 40 per cent, of the whole. The selection is 
limited by such considerations as brevity, distinctness and ease of utter- 
ance difficult and unusual sounds and combinations being excluded. 

Thus, in selecting a word for the idea man, the English word is found 
very suitable, especially as it is substantially the same in all other Teutonic 
tongues; and it has been adopted, but sounded as in German. The word 
house, or haus, for the idea of a dwelling, is found objectionable for several 
reasons: the h is to be avoided because unpronounceable by some nations, 



vi INTRODUCTION. 

and the s is already appropriated for the plural termination. The Teutonic 
roots being barred out, recourse is had to the Latin, and dom is selected. 
We are also familiar with this in English, as in domestic. In hand again 
we have the same trouble with h and also with the two consonants coming 
together, the plural hands being unpronounceable by certain peoples. The 
Latin root man- will not help us here, because man is already appropriated. 
Therefore, the transposed form nam is adopted, slightly assisting the 
memory. 

As to grammar, the first requisite is regularity, and the second is sim- 
plicity. There was before the inventor a choice between the inflectional 
and the analytical modes; whether to express the relations between words 
by modifications in form, or by separate words as connectivs. He inclined 
to the former, and his language is rather inflectional than analytical. It 
has four cases: the nominativ, being the unmodified form, and the genitiv, 
dativ and accusativ, designated by vowel endings. In selecting these 
endings the inventor has greatly aided the memory by employing the 
first three vowels, , <?, ?', in their regular order. In the verb, the distinc- 
tions of tense are denoted by the vowel series, a, a, <?, ?', o , u, at the 
beginning, while the persons are distinguished by affixing the pronouns, 
ob, I, o/, thou, etc. A prefixed p marks the passiv voice. The remaining 
inflectional forms are provided for by simple and regular terminations. 

For some time after the appearance of Schleyer's grammar, his adher- 
ents were few, and his project was ignored by the scientific and literary 
world. It spread first to Austria, where it awakened considerable interest, 
and where the first society for its propagation was formed at Vienna in 
1882. Until 1884 its adherents outside of the German-speaking countries 
were very few and scattered. In that year it invaded Holland and Belgium, 
and a great many societies sprang up in those countries. In 1885, Dr. 
Auguste Kerckhoffs, Professor in the School of Higher Commercial Studies, 
at Paris, introduced it to the French nation by several articles, lectures and 
treatises. This created a great sensation in France and a strong National 
Association " pour la propagation du Volapiik " was formed, which num- 
bers such men as Francisque Sarcey, Emile Gauthier, and Dr. Allaire. 

Prof. Kerckhoffs aroused enthusiasm, not only in France, but in other 
countries where his works were circulated. Spain was the next, followed 
by Italy and Portugal. During 1885 and 1886 the countries of the north 
Sweden, Denmark and Russia also received the new language. Thus, 
the extension of Volaplikhas been geographical, and the English-speaking 
peoples are the last of the great European races to be affected by it. In 
each country, as a rule, its popularization has immediately followed the 
publication of a grammar peculiarly suited to its people. 

Prof. Kerckhoffs, some months ago, estimated the number of persons who 
have studied Volaptik at 210,000. This may be somewhat too high, but 
the number is certainly very large. In Vienna alone, the classes during 
the winter of 1886-7 were attended by 2,500 students. 138 societies for its 
cultivation have been organized in different places. 

Eleven periodicals are now published, devoted primarily to Volapiik, at 
Constance, Breslau, Madrid, Paris, Vienna, Munich, Milan, Puerto-Rico, 
Stockholm Aabybro (Denmark), and Antwerp, the youngest being four 
months old, and the oldest, six years. Most of these contain articles in 
the language of the country, as well as in Volaptik; but three of them, one 
being a humorous paper, are cxclusivly in VolapUk. 



INTRODUCTION. vii 

The bibliography of the subject (as given at length in "Le Volaptik," 
No. 10) comprises 96 books in 13 languages. This does not include 
articles in periodicals, nor Schleyer's single-sheet compendiums in various 
languages, nor works merely announced as forthcbming. 

Two General Assemblies, or Congresses, of the advocates of Volaptik 
have been held: the first at Friedrichshafen, in August, 1884 ; the second 
at Munich, in August, 1887. The third is to take place at Paris, probably 
in August, 1889. 

The Congress of 1887 established a three-fold organization: a General 
Association of the supporters of Volaptik (Volaplikaklub Valemik) ; an 
Academy of VolapUk (Kadem Volaptika); a Central Organ (VolapUkabled 
Zenodik). Schleyer's own Weltspracheblatt, published at Constance, was 
designated as the organ, and its name has been changed accordingly. 

Each of these organizations has its officers, Schleyer remaining at the 
head of the whole movement. The Director of the Academy is Prof. 
Kerckhoffs ; his colleagues number, at present, 17, from various nations: 
Germany, Austro Hungary, Spain, Italy, Portugal, Holland, England, 
the United States, Russia, Syria. The Academy is expected to edit the 
standard dictionary and grammar, to authorise new words, to adopt any 
necessary changes, and to give their sanction to approved works of 
instruction. 

The most obvious application of Volaptik is for international correspon- 
dence, especially commercial correspondence, which is numerically the 
most important. It will require no argument to convince the business 
world that a common language, if easily learned, and once established, 
will be an immense facilitation of commerce. This modest claim is all that 
is necessary to put forth on behalf of Volaptik at present. If firmly estab- 
lished for this purpose, the extension of its usefulness into the fields of 
science, diplomacy and literature may safely be left to the future to deter- 
mine, as well as whether it will ever be used by travelers. It will, in any 
event, be watched with great interest, and its rise and progress will form a 
novel and curious chapter of history. 



HOW TO USE THIS BOOK. 

The best test of having thoroughly learned any section of 
the book is the ability to read and write the corresponding 
exercise fluently and correctly. After doing this, the section 
should again be read, to see that all its directions are fully 
understood, but memorizing is not recommended. 

Persons who are not trained in the study of languages had 
better not examin the ' ' Synopsis of Inflections " until after 
they have mastered Exercise 25 with all before it. They 
are then recommended to make a copy of the Synopsis, leaving 
blanks for the Volapiik letters, which they will afterwards fill 
up from memory. 

As additional practice, take at any time a few words of the 
Vocabulary, and compose some Volapiik sentences introducing 
those words, together with the other words and forms already 
known. Try to compose in Volapiik from the idea, without 
thinking of the English way of expressing it. Take the 
Volapiik sentences given in the exercises as frames, and fit in 
other nouns, verbs and adjectivs. 

For teaching classes, I recommend blackboard lessons, 
based on the exercises and preceding the study of the text. 
Each lesson should embrace review-practice on foregoing 
sections and preparatory exercise on coming subjects. Oral 
lessons for schools, entirely inductiv, will be published here- 
after. 

Linguists or philologists who desire to obtain a general 
knowledge of the structure of the language can do so by an 
hour's study of the fable of "Abraham and the Old Man," 
with the "Model of Translation and Grammatical Analysis " 
referring to the Synopsis of Inflection. 



HAND-BOOK OF VOLAPUK. 



SOUNDS AND LETTERS. 

The Alphabet of Volapiik consists of the following letters : 
aabcdefghijklmnooprstuiivxyz. 

These are the same as in English, omitting q and w and 
adding a 6 ii. 

The following have their English sounds : 

b, in ook. 

d, in dog. 

f, in /ame. 

h, in 

k, in 

1, in /ow. 

m, in me. 

n, in no. 

r, in ray. 

t, in /ea. 

v, in z>ain. 

x, in box. 

g is sounded as "in go, never as in George. 

s is usually sounded as in sole ; but in such combinations 
as bs, ds, gs, Is, it is softened to a z-sound as in rose ; just 
as happens in the English words, tufo, eggs. 

y is always a consonant, as in 

j is sounded like sh. 

c is sounded like /in judge. 

z is sounded like /$. 



2 SOUNDS AND LETTERS. 

The vowels have one invariable sound each ; not as in 
English, where each vowel has several sounds and each sound 
has many representativs. 

a as in papa, psalm, far, father. 

a as in care, fair. 

e as in they, obey. 

i as in machme, be. 

o as in go. 

6 as in word, szr. 

u as in rude, rood. 

ii has nothing like it in English. The lips being protruded 
as if to say u (oo), try to say i (ee). 

Some English words spelt, as nearly as possible, in Volapiik 
letters : 

A public functionary, coc. A fowl, gus. The act of 
selling, sel. Parts of the hand, pam, nels. Animals,- jip, 
got, kaz. 

The accent is always on the last syllable, exclusiv, how- 
ever, of a syllable joined to it with a hyphen, -li and -la are 
the only syllables so hyphenized. Ex. : getom ; getom-li ? 
getom-la. 

Two vowels coming together are sounded in separate 
syllables ; as laut (la-ut), geil (gay-eef), sied (see-aid]. 

In writing and printing Volapiik a system of punctuation 
is employed which differs slightly from ours, as follows : 

The quotation-marks are " instead of" ". 

The exclamation-point is used after a simple address, as 
well as after an ejaculation. Where we write 

Dear Sir , 
Volapiikists would write Dear Sir ! 

The use of capitals is the same as in English, except that 
nouns and adjectivs derived from proper nouns do not begin 
with capitals, nor do any pronouns. In our language we 
print "Frenchman, France, French." 

in Volapiik flentel, Flent, flentik." 

In this book, we print Volapuk words and sentences in 
heavier type. 



SOUNDS AND LETTERS. 



In learning to pronounce Volapiik, the first difficulty is to 
avoid sounding the vowels a e i o u 
like their English names A E I O U. 

Always think of them and speak of them by their Volapiik 
names. Originally they had the same sounds in English. 

The Volapiik syllables pa pe pi po pu 

are not to be read pay pea pie Po pew 

but like the English syllables, pa pay pea Po poo (shampoo) 
Read them over carefully several times, then drop the p sound 
and repeat a e i o u 

The adding of another consonant at the end does not 
change the vowel sound ; therefore, pet is pronounced pate 
(not pet) ; pit is pronounced pete (not pit) ; pot rhymes with 
goat, not with got ; put rhymes with boot, not with but, nor 
with foot. 

When you meet with a new Volapiik word do not "jump " 
at its pronunciation by guessing what the letters might spell 
in English, but consider each sound. If necessary to analyse 
it, do so in the following manner : begin at the last vowel ; 
sound it alone ; prefix a consonant ; affix another consonant, 
if any, until the last syllable is sounded ; then build up another 
syllable in the same way ; sound the two together, accenting 
the last, then the next syllable, sounding all three, and so on. 

Thus, to read the word Volapiikatidel : 

e, A. 

de, day. 

del, dale. 

i, E. 



ti, 

tidel, 

a, 

ka, 

katidel, 

u, 

pu, 

piikatidel, 

a, 

la, 

lapiikatidel, 
o, 
vo, 



tea. 

tea-dale. 

ah. 

kah. 

kah-tea-dale. 



pu. 

piikdh-teadale. 
ah. 
lah. 

lah-pukah-teaddle. 
oh, owe. 
vo, vo. 
volapiikatidel, vola'h-piika'h-teadale. X, 



4 PARTS OF SPEECH. 

PARTS OF SPEECH. 

There are in Volapiik the following Parts of Speech : Noun, 
Pronoun, Adjectiv, Verb, Participle, Adverb, Preposition, 
Conjunction, Interjection. Their uses are the same as in 
English. 

There are no Articles in Volapuk.* 

The grammatical distinctions are : Number, Gender, Case, 
Person, Degree, Tense, Mood, Voice. 

These distinctions are marked by adding a sound or a 
syllable at the beginning or end of the simple root-form. In 
English we often mark them by separate words. Thus the one 
word pulogoms stands for the five words, they will have been 
seen. They is indicated by the ending oms ; will have been by 
the syllable pu at the beginning ; log is the simple root-form, 
and means, as a noun, eye, but as a verb, to see. Pu and 
oms may be analysed thus : u as a verb-prefix (or tense 'aug- 
ment, as it is called) indicates the future-perfect ; p is the sign 
of the passiv voice. In oms, s denotes the plural ; m de- 
notes the masculin third person ; o is characteristic of all 
person-endings and unites them to the verb. 

When no such distinctiv syllables are added it is under- 
stood that 

the number is singular ; 

the gender is masculin ; 

the case is nominativ ; 

the person is the third ; 

the degree is positiv ; 

the tense is present ; 

the mood is indicativ ; 

the voice is activ. 

Nouns have number, gender and case. 
Pronouns have number, gender, case and person. 
Verbs have number, gender, person, tense, mood and voice. 
Adjectivs and adverbs have degree. 

Adjectivs may also have the inflections of nouns, but this 
is seldom required. 

* Anyone may convince himself of possibility of dispensing with articles by reading 
aloud any extract. Omission of articles will be found not to obscure sense. In 
telegrams, articles are seldom used. 



NUMBERS. 5 

NUMBERS. 

The simple form is the singular number. 

The plural number always ends in s. 

Man, a man ; plural, mans, men. (Man may also be 
translated, the man, or simply, man. The articles an, a and 
the are always omitted. ) Vom, the woman ; voms, the 
women. Ob, I ; obs, we. Om, he ; oms, they. 

Ol, thou or you ; ols, ye or you. In English, you is 
sometimes singular and sometimes plural. In addressing one 
person, ol should be used ; while ols is used for two or more. 

The numerals are always placed after the thing numbered. 
Man bal, one man. Mans tel, two men. Voms kil, three 
women. 

The first nine numerals end in 1, preceded by the vowels in 
regular order. 

123456 789 
bal tel kil fol lul mal vel jol ziil 

The tens are formed by adding s. 

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 
bals tels kils fols luls mals vels jols ziils 

Numbers composed of tens and units unite the two parts 
by,e', and, balsebal, n; balsetel, twelve; telsebal, 21; 
lulsevel, 57; ziilseziil, 99. 

Turn, hundred ; mil, thousand ; balion, million ; these 
are preceded by one of the digits. Baltum, 100; teltum, 
200 ; kilmil, 3000 ; folmil foltum, 4400 ; lulmil lultum 
lulselul, 5555. 

EXERCISE 1. 

VOCABULARY. 

Buk, book. Dom, house. Man, man. Pul, boy. 
Del, day. E, and. Mug, mouse. Vig, week. 

Doab, dollar. Gan, goose. (pronounce moo?) Yel, year. 
Dog, dog. Jip, sheep. Mul, month. 

1. Put all the above nouns into the plural, giving the Eng- 
lish meaning of each. 

2. Express in Volapiik : books, days, men, houses, mice, 
months, geese, boys, weeks, dollars. 



6 NUMBERS. 

3. Would you use ol or ols in the following sentences?: 
"Are you an American ?" "Will you take seats ?" 

4. Read these numbers in Volapuk: 2, 5, 33, 42, 3, 41, 6, 
25, 50, 75, ioo, 7, 77, 777, 7777, 8, 18, 6, 99, 15, 13, 64, 
5 1 , 84, 77, 333, 1887. I2 - 

5. Express in Volapuk, aloud : 5 men (remember the 
order is 'men five'); 3 boys; 12 years; $20; 10 years; 3 
months; 6 mice ; $50; 16 houses; 3000 books ; 100 sheep; 
55 boys; 32 years and 10 months; 7 days; one week; 30 
days, one month ; 365 days ; 12 months , 52 weeks, one year ; 
$2769. 

6. Read aloud, thinking of the meaning, Mans bals ; 
gan bal ; obs ; muls kil ; doms fol ; yels baltum ; jips 
tel; mugsziil; doabs balsetel; buks teltum ; muls 
balsetel ; yel bal ; dels kiltum malselul ; yel bal ; ols ; 
obs tel. 

7. Give the English of each of the above phrases. 

It is not sufficient to go through these exercises once ; they 
should be repeated again and again, until they can be spoken 
with the greatest rapidity. 

Each Volapuk exercise is to be first read aloud, thinking of 
the meaning, but not of the English words. Then it should be 
translated into English, the translation written down and com- 
pared with the key. After a time the key should be translated 
back again and compared with the original. 



CASES. 

The case endings are the first three vowets, 

-A. -E. -I. 

in the plural -AS. -ES. -IS. 

For example, i. Kim ? who ? 

2. Kima ? whose? of whom? 

3. Kime ? to whom ? 

4. Kimi ? whom ? 

The names of the cases are : kimfal, kimafal, kimefal, 
kimifal," taken from the cases of kim, with the word fal," 
meaning "case." 

i. The kimfal, who-case or nominativ, is the simple form 
without any added vowel. It answers the question, " Who ?" 
It is usually translated by the English nominativ. 



CASES. 



2. The kimafal, or whose-case, ending in a, is the answer 
to the question, "Whose?" or "Of whom?" It is usually 

translated by the possessiv ( 's) or by "of." Fat mana ; 

the mans father, or the father of the man. The kimafal is 
sometimes called the genitiv. 

3. The kimefal, or to-whom-case, ends in e and answers 
the question "To whom?" It is usually translated by to 
with the objectiv ; but frequently we omit the to ; thus we say 
"I gave an apple to the boy," or "I gave the boy an apple." 
"Boy" would be in the kimefal as expressing the indirect 
object of the action. The kimefal is sometimes called the 
dativ case. 

4. The kimifal, or whom-case, ends in i, answers to the 
question ' ' Whom ?" and denotes the direct object. In the 
sentence just given "apple" would be in the kimifal. It 
corresponds nearly to the English objectiv. It is sometimes 
called the accusativ. 



SUMMARY OF THE .CASES. 
As to endings : 

i. 2. -a 3. -e 

As to names : 



4. -i. 



i. Kimfal. 2. Kimafal. 3. Kimefal. 4. Kimifal. 
Or, after the classical style : 

i. Nominativ. 2. Genitiv. 3. Dativ. 4. Accusativ. 
Answering the questions 

i. Who? 2. Whose? Of whom ? 3. To whom ? 

4. Whom? 
Denoting usually 

i. The Subject. 2. The Possessor. 3. The Indirect 

Object. 4. The Direct Object. 
Translated by 

i. The Nominativ. 2. The Possessiv or of. 3. to. 

4. The Objectiv. 

The kimfal, preceded by the interjection o " and followed 
by an exclamation point, is used in addressing a person : o 
sol!" "Sir." This is sometimes considered as a separate 
case, called the kimofal or vocativ. It seems, however, better 
to consider it a nominativ independent, as in English. 
O " is sometimes omitted in this case. 



8 CASES. 

Prepositions regularly govern the kimfal. Thus, we express 
"near me " by nilii ob," not nilii obi " nor ,,nilii obe ;" 
"out of the house," se dom," not se doma" nor se 
domi." 

Occasionally, the kimifal will be found after a preposition 
instead of i at the end of the preposition itself, as will be 
explained hereafter. 

- A word used elliptically, like "good-morning/' "thanks," 
"my compliments," is usually in the kimifal, a verb being 
understood as, [I wish you] good-morning, [I return] thanks, 
[I present] my compliments. 

Directions for translating into Volapiik : 

1. A word in the nominativ is put in the kimfal. If the 
nominativ is independent put o before the kimfal. 

2. The possessiv is rendered by the kimafal. 

3. A word preceded by "of" is generally put in the kimafal. 

4. A word (other than a verb in the infinitiv) preceded by 
"to" is generally put in the kimefal, but not if "to" signifies 
motion. "I say to you," ,,sagob olse"; "I go to you," 
golob al olsi." 

5. A word preceded by any other preposition is usually in 
the kimfal. 

6. A word in the objectiv governed by a verb is put in the 
kimifal. 

The adjectiv has ordinarily no case-ending ; but occasion- 
ally it takes the case-endings of the noun which it qualifies. 
This is only done when the adjectiv, being out of its regular 
place, might be supposed to qualify some other word. Thus, 
diinan, meaning servant ; blod, brother, and fiedik, faithful. 

Diinane fiedik bloda ; or, 
fiedike diinane bloda; or, 
diinane bloda fiedike ; to the faithful servant of the brother. 

Diinane bloda fiedik; or, 

diinane fiedika bloda ; to the servant of the faithful brother. 

But it is better to leave the adjectiv in its usual place. 



EMJLYLM'WTOSP 

CASES. 9 

EXERCISE 2. 

DECLINING. To decline a noun is to give all its cases in 
regular order. Thus fat is declined : 

fat fata fate fati 
fats fatas fates fatis 

Decline all the nouns in the vocabulary of Exercise i. 
(Remember to accent the last syllable. ) 

Express the following in Volapiik : Of the fathers, to the 
boys, of a man, to the dog, the geese. 

VOCABULARY. 

Givom, gives. Logom, sees. 

Blinom, brings. Labom, has. 

(Why these words end in om will be understood hereafter) 

Nam, hand. Fut, foot. Fat, father. 

Diip, hour. Mon, money. Log, eye. 

Read in Volapiik and translate into English : 
Man labom dogi. Man labom dogis tel. Pul 
labom dogis tel e jipi bal. Dog logom gani. Pul 
logom dogi. Man givom dogi pule. Pul givom gani 
mane. Man givom doabis kil pule. Dog labom futis 
fol. Gan labom futis tel. Man labom futis tel e 
namis tel. Dog mana labom futis fol. Fat mana 
givom doabis kil pule. O fat ! man givom doab; bal 
pule. Kim blinom dogis mane ? Pul blinom dogis 
mane. Kim labom moni ? Fat labom moni. 

Answer in Volapiik the following questions : 

Kim labom dogi ? 

Kim logom gani ? 

Kim givom dogi pule ? 

Kimi man givom pule ? 

Kime man givom dogi ? 

The last three questions may be answered by the same 
words differently emphasized. 

CAUTION. In translating into Volapuk do not overlook 
the distinction between the subject and the object of the 
sentence. Put the subject in the kimfal and the object in the 
kimifal. In the above exercises there is one ERROR in this 
respect, purposely left uncorrected. Did you notice it ? 



10 PERSONS. 

Express the following sentences in Volapfik. In each 
sentence there is at least one word which ought to be put in the 
kimifal. 

Who has the dog ? The boy has two dogs [dogs 2]. The 
man has three dogs. The dog has four feet. The boy has two 
feet. Who has two hands ? The man gives money. The 
man gives money to the boy (or, the man gives the boy some 
money; some would not be translated). The boy's father 
[father of boy] gives a dollar to the man. The year has 
twelve months. The month has thirty days. The week has 
seven days. The day has 24 hours. Who brings the goose ? 
Who sees the dog ? Who sees the two sheep ? To whom does 
the man give money ? (Literally, to whom man gives money ? 
"Does" is untranslatable.) To whom does the boy bring 
money ? The boy brings five dollars to the father. 



PERSONS. 

The pronoun of the FIRST person is ob, I ; plural, obs, we. 

When the verb is in the first person the pronoun is united 
with it as a person ending, forming one word. Binob, I am ; 
piikob, I speak ; komobs, we come ; golobs, we go. 

The pronoun of the SECOND person is ol, thou or you 
(singular); ols, you, plural. See remarks on the distinction 
between ol and ols, page 5. 

These syllables ol and ols are likewise suffixed to the verb, 
forming one word. Binol, thou art or you are ; piikol, 
thou speakest or you speak ; komols flens, you, friends, are 
coming ; golols, ye are going. 

We may also translate "I am" by ob binob, and "thou 
art" by ol binol ; but this repetition of the personal syllable is 
unusual, and only employed for emphasis or when it is desired 
to place the subject at a distance from the verb. 

In the THIRD person there are four pronouns : om for 
masculms and neuters, he, it ; of for feminins, she ; os, neuter 
impersonal or abstract; on, collectiv, one (as "one says"), 
people, "they." In the plural, oms and ofs, they. 



PERSONS. 11 

These pronouns are also suffixed to the verb, binom, he 
is, it is ("IT" being some definit thing previously mentioned). 
Piikof, she speaks ; golofs, they (the women) go ; nifos, it 
snows ; sagon, they say, people say, one says, it is said. 

Even when the subject of the verb is a noun expressed, yet 
the om or of must be added : of for a feminin subject, om 
for any other. Vom binof jonik, the woman is beautiful. 
Man binom famik, the man is famous. Dom binom 
gletik (not dom binos gletik), the house is large. Doms 
binoms gletik, the houses are large. Jisons binofs yunik, 
the daughters are young. 

We can now conjugate any verb through the persons of the 
present tense. 

1. binob, I am. i. binobs, we are. 

2. binol, thou art, you are. 2. binols, you are. 

3. binom, is, he is, it is. 3. binoms, are, they are. 
binof, is, she is. binofs, are, they are. 
binos, it is. 

bin on, one is, people are. 

The mnemonic word OBOLOMOFOSON contains all 
the personal pronouns. If it be written from memory twenty 
times the verb endings will not be easily forgotten, 

EXERCISER 3. 

VOCABULARY. 

Buk, book. Komob, I come. Golob, I go. 

Lilob, I hear. Binob, I am. Piikob, I speak. 

Binob. Givob. Blinob. Piikob. Golob. Komob. 
Labob buki. Givobs moni. Labobs bukis tel. Givob 
moni mane. Blinobs bukis pule. Blinobs bukis pula. 

I speak. I go. I have the goose. We have the books. 
I have five books. We give money to the man. I give five 
dollars to the boy. We bring a dog to the man. I bring the 
books. I bring the boys' books. I bring books to the boys. 
We give books to the boys. 



12 PERSONS. 

EXERCISER 4. 

Labol buki. Piikol. Golol. Labels fati. Blinol 
buki obe. Blinob bukis ole. Givols moni pules. 
Komols e golobs. Piikobs e lilols. 

(In the English exercises we shall print YOU in small capitals 
where it refers to more than one.) You have the book. You 
have books. You speak and we hear. You see the man. 
We come and YOU go. You come and I go. You have 
books. You give books to the boys. You speak to me. I 
give money to you. You give money to me. He comes. 
She goes. He gives money to the man. She has the book. 
He brings a dog to the boy. She speaks. He sees the man 
and the boy. He gives me money. 




EXERCISE 6. 

VOCABULARY. 

Tid, instruction. Selob, I sell. Bod, bread. 

Tidob, I teach. Lemob, I buy. Mit, meat. 

Fidob, I eat. Tedel, merchant. Yeb, grass. 

Dlinob, I drink. Vin, wine. Vom, woman. 

Liladob, I read. Vat, water. 

(formerly liladob.) 

Tidom. Kim tidom ? Man tidom. Selom bukis. 
Kim selom bukis ? Ob selob bukis. Givommoni. Kim 
givom moni ? Fat givom moni. Man tidom puli. 
Tedel selom bukis. Man dlinom vati. Vom dlinof 
vini. Kat fidom mugi. Pul fidom bodi. 

Kis ? what ? 

Kisi givom pule ? Givom moni e bodi pule. (Re- 
member that, when the subject is not expressed, givom means 
he gives, or does he give?) Kisi blinof mane? Blinof 
vati. Kisi vom fidof ? Fidof bodi e dlinof vati. Kisi 
man fidom ? Fidom bodi e dlinom vini. Jip fidom 
yebi. 



PERSONS. 13 

Supply the proper endings in the following sentences : 

Man dlin vin . Vom dlin vat . Fat pul 
giv mon vom . Mot blin bod pul . 

He comes. Who comes? The man comes. He eats 
bread. I eat bread. He gives a dollar. Who gives a dollar ? 
The father gives a dollar. The man has a dog. The boy buys 
a book. The father drinks wine. The mother drinks water. 
The dog sees the cat. The boy eats bread. What does he 
eat ? He eats bread. Who eats bread ? What does she give 
to the boy ? She gives the boy money. What does the woman 
eat ? She eats bread and meat. The dog sees three sheep. 

I eat meat, you eat bread ; he drinks water, she drinks 
wine. We have books, YOU have eyes, they have ears. 



EXERCISE 6. 

Penob, I write. Pened, a letter (correspondence). 

Tonab, a letter (of the alphabet). 

Tidoms. Kims tidoms ? Mans tidoms. Seloms 
bukis. Tedels seloms bukis pules. Laboms moni. 
Kims laboms moni ? Tedels laboms moni. Mans 
fidoms bodi e miti. Voms dlinofs vini e vati. Man 
penom penedi. Tedels penoms penedis. Puls pen- 
oms tonabis. Voms penofs penedis manes. 

The dogs see the sheep. The sheep see the dog. The 
sheep sees the <k>gi - v The men write letters. The boys see 
the letters (a, b, c,). The women drink (not -oms) water. 
The men drink wine. The sheep eats grass. 



EXERCISE 7-. 

Nim, animal. Dlin, a drink. Fid, food. Dil, part. 
Julel, scholar. Nif, snow. Tot, thunder. Sag, say. 

Das, that. 

(CAUTION. After the verb to be, use the kimfal, not the 
kimifal.) 



14 GENDERS. 

Man binom tedel. Vig binom dels vel (not binos). 
Del binom dil viga. Diip binom dil dela. Mul binom 
dil yela. Vat e vin binoms dlins. Nifos. Totos. 
Logon nimis. Dlinon vati. Fidon bodi. Liladon 
bukis. 

The boy is a scholar. Dogs and sheep are animals. The 
day is a part of the year. Bread is food. Wine is a drink. 
Water is a drink. I am a merchant. You are a scholar. You 
are scholars. It thunders. One eats meat. It snows. One 
says (they say) that you are a scholar. 

Supply the proper endings : Dog fid- bod-. Dogs e 
jips bin- nim-. Sagon das tot-. Logon das nif-. 



GENDERS. 

Om, he (it); of, she; os, it; ji, female. 

All nouns are considered as "masculin" unless expressly 
denoting females. What we call the neuter gender of nouns 
does not exist in Volapiik. Thus of is used of female persons 
or animals ; om is used ist, of males ; 2nd, of living beings 
whose sex is disregarded ; 3rd, of lifeless or sexless things (it); 
OS is z'/, speaking abstractly, where no noun is referred to, as, 

It is fair weather. 

Will you be faithful ? I swear it. 

Ji- is a prefix (English, she) used to make nouns feminin, 
when the sex is to be specially pointed out. 

A few words, easily recognised, are always feminin, as mot 
(=jifat), vom (=jiman), lad (=jisol), kun (=jixol). 

Other words, if relating to men, are masculin without 
any prefix ; if relating to animals, the unprefixed word is 
common (indifferent) gender, the name of the male animal has 
the prefix om-, and the name of the female the prefix ji-. 

Jeval, horse ; omjeval, stallion ; jijeval, mare. 



GENDERS. / 15 

8. 




Flen, friend. Tidel, teacher. Jeval, horse. 

Lautel, author. Lanel, angel. Viudel, widower. 

Nelijel, Englishman. Sanel, physician, Blod, brother. 

Vomiil, Miss. Matel, husband. Maria, Mary. 

Express in Volapuk : c 

Lady-friend. goctor's_wife. Widow. Authoress. Miss 
Mary is an angel. L)octress. Mare. Sister. Englishwoman. 
Wife. 



FORMATION OF ADJECTIVS. 

The ' ' cardinal " numeral adjectivs have been given under 
numbers. 

The ordinal numerals, first, second, third, etc., end in id. 
First, balid ; second, telid ; tenth, balsid ; eleventh, balse- 
balid; 377th, kiltumvelsevelid, written 377id. There is 
also an interrogation form, kimid? " how-many-eth ?" for 
which we have in English no equivalent. Del kimid mula 
binom ?" "What day of the month is it?" 




9. 

Balul, January. Telul, February. 

In the same manner form the names of the months to Sep- 
tember (Zulul) inclusive. 

Balsul, October. Babul, November^ Batul, December. 
Baliidel, Sunday. Teliidel, Monday, etc. 

Exercises for translation : 

Balul binom mul balid. Velul binom mul velid. 
Kiliidel binom del kilid viga, Batul binom mul bals- 
etelid yela. Diip kilid. Diip kimid binom ? Binom 
diip balsid. 

Saturday is the seventh day of the week. November is the 
eleventh month. It is four o'clock. (It is the fourth hour. ) 



16 ADJECTIVS. 

POSSESSIV PRONOUNS. 

The possessivs, my, mine, iky, thine, etc. , may be rendered 
in two ways : 

1. By the kimafal of the pronoun ; fat oba, my father ; fat 
obas, our father. 

2. By the termination -ik, forming a possessiv adjectiv ; 
buk obik, my book ; buks omsik, their books ; buk at 
binom olik, this book is yours. 

The kimafal is used when otherwise there would be too 
much repetition of the termination ik. 



EXXKRCISK 10. 

Nelijapiik, English language. Flentapuk, French language. 
Nelijel, Englishman. Flentel, Frenchman. 

Sikod, therefore. 

Tidel obik tidom pulis lul. Kim binom tidel ola ? 
Tidel obsik labom julelis telsefol. Piik obas binom 
nelijapiik. Fat obik labom sonis kil e jisonis tel; 
sikod labob blodis tel e jiblodis tel. Binobs cils lul. 
Fat obsik lofom cilis omik. Mot obsik lofof cilis ofa. 
Fat e mot obsik lofoms cilis omsik. 

My teacher reads a book. Your father has four dogs. 
Who is YOUR teacher? Our teacher is a Frenchman. Our 
father and mother love their children. Who is our father ? 
Our father is the husband of our mother. Your father and my 
mother are friends. My teacher's language [language of 
teacher mine] is French [French language]. Your teacher 
reads my books. 

DEMONSTRATIVE 

The demonstrativ pronouns, which are used as adjectivs, 
and also by themselvs, are the following : 

at, et, it, ot, ut ; som. 
Emphatic forms, at, eit, iet, 6t, ut ; som. 



ADJECTIVS. 17 

At, this ; man at, this man ; buks at, these books ; del 
at, this very day. 

Et, that ; pul et, that boy ; jipuls eit, those very girls. 

It, -self; man it, the man himself; vom it, the woman 
herself; ob it, I myself; obs iet, we, our own selves. 

Ot, same ; tidel ot, the same teacher ; tid 6t, just the 
same instruction. 

Ut, that, before a relativ ; man ut, kel vilom binon 
libik, that man (or the man) who wishes to be free. 

Som, such ; dog som, such a dog ; kats som, just such 
cats. 

The emphatic forms are rarely used and may be dispenst 
with altogether. 



EXERCISE; 11. 

Laned, country (not the city). Lan, country (a division of land). 
Dom, house. Lodop, dwelling. 

Sevob, I know, am acquainted Ab, but. 

with (not, I know a fact). No, not, no. 
Zif, town. Men, human being, person. 

Lodob, I live, dwell. In, in (followed by the kimfal). 

Dom at binom lodop obsik. Man et labom cilis 
kil ; sevob cilis ab no mani it. Zif at labom domis 
turn e menis veltum. Mans, voms e cils binoms 
mens. Sevol tideli e tedeli; ob sevob manis ot. 
Man ut, kel lodom in dom et, binom lautel, e penom 
bukis. 

This country is mine. I live in that house. The men who 
live in that town know us. We live in the same town. These 
animals are horses. 

THE RELATIV. 

The relativ pronoun is kel, who, which, what. It has the 
force of a conjunction and a pronoun. It is used indepen- 
dently or as an adjectiv. 




18 ADJECTIVS. 

THE INTERRO 

The interrogativ pronoun is kim ? kif ? kis ? when used 
independently, and kiom ? kiof? kios ? when used as an 
adjectiv. 

THE ADJECTIV IN -IK. 

All other adjectivs are formed from nouns by adding the 
ending -ik. Gud, goodness ; gudik, good. Lof, love ; 
lofik, dear; loflik, lovely. Yel, year; yelik, pertaining to 
the year ; yelsik, yearly. Any word with the end-syllable -ik 
is surely an adjectiv. 

EXERCISED 12. 

Sevob, I know. Lad, lady, Madam. Din, thing. 
Lautob, I compose [a book]. 

Sevob mani, kel penom bukis at. Man, keli sevob, 
penom bukis at. Kim penom bukis ? Lautell Kis 
binom lautel ? Lautel binom man ut, kel lautom bukis. 
Kif binof lad et, kel labof dogi ? Lad et binof jisanel 
B ; matel ofa binom sanel obsik. 

I see the man who gives money to the boys. Who knows 
the author of this book ? The doctor's wife knows the man 
who is the author of the book. What is a merchant? A 
merchant is a man who buys and sells things. Who is that 
woman ? That woman is a teacher, who teaches boys and 
girls. 

EXERCISE 13. 

Gudik, good. Badik, bad. Spelob, I hope. 

Gud, goodness. Bad, badness. Das, that. 

Lonedik, long. Blefik, short. Lad, heart. 

Manik, male, Jilik, female. Ladlik, hearty, 

masculin. feminin. COrdial. 

Gletik, great, large. Smalik, small, Subsat, noun. 

Modik, many, much. little. Neudik, neuter. 

Saunik, well, Nemodik, a few. Neit, night. 

healthy. Valik, all. Te, only. 

Lofik, dear, Delidik, dear, Nedelidik, cheap. 

[beloved]. [costly]. 

Ed, used before a vowel, means and. 



ADJECTIVS. 19 

Man at binom gudik. Mans gudik laboms flenis 
modik. O sol lofik! penob ole penedi blefik e spelob 
das binol saunik. Binob flen volapiika e sagon das 
volapiik labom flenis modik in Ian olsik. Men ut, kel 
labom ladi badik, labom neflenis modik. Subsats in 
nelijapiik binoms manik, jilik e neudik ; in volapiik ed 
in flentapiik binoms manik e jilik. In batul labobs 
delis blefik e neitis lonedik. 

My dear friend : [use kimafal to avoid repetition of ik] 
Your letter is short and cordial. I have a few friends who 
write to me long letters. 

CAUTION. Adjectiv after noun. But with two adjectivs, 
you may put one before and one after, to avoid ik in suc- 
cession. Give to the first the same termination as the noun. 
Ex. : "Of many men," ,,manas modik;" " of many good 
men," ,,modikas manas gudik." 

All good men have good hearts, and love good things. 
God is the father of all men [human beings]. All men who 
love God are good. God is the author of all good things. I 
am your cordial friend, who hopes that you are well. The 
letters which YOU write to us are short. Who is the lady to 
whom you write long letters? That lady is the wife of 
Doctor B ; she, herself, is not [no binof ] a physician. 



Hereafter, many of the words used in the exercises will have 
to be looked for in the vocabulary at the end of the book. 

Si, yes. No, no or not; when it means *#/, it is placed 
next before the verb which is denied. 

Lesi, yes indeed. Leno, not at all, by no means. 

God no lofom menis badik. Mens badik no lofoms 
Godi. Subsats in volapiik no binoms neudik ; laboms 
genis te tel, no kil. Dins nelifik binoms gena manik. 
Tedels, kels sevoms volapiiki, spodoms ko vol lolik. 
Kims sevoms volapiiki ? Valiks mens estudik in vol 
lolik. 



20 FORMATION OF ADVERBS. 

I do not see my three books. Which book [book which} 
is good? This book is not bad. I have not many good 
books. How many genders are there in Volapiik? [" Genders 
how many are in Volapuk ?" Omit "there" in "there is," 
"there are."] There are two genders [two genders are] in 
Volapuk and in French ; there are three genders in English 
and in German. One (not bal, i) studies Volapuk in all 
countries of the whole world. 



FORMATION OF ADVERBS. 

Numeral adverbs, expressing repetition, are formed by add- 
ing na. Kilna, three times ; kilidna, the third time. 

Adverbs are formed from adjectivs, and sometimes from 
other parts of speech by adding o, corresponding to the English 
-ly. 

Vifik, quick ; vifiko, quickly. 

Neit, night ; neito, at night ; neitiko, nocturnally. 

When the adverb ending in iko immediately follows the 
verb, o is sometimes omitted ; 

gonom vifik (vifiko), he runs fast (swiftly). 
It is much clearer, however, to retain the o. 



15. 

Fidobs kilna in del, telsebalna in vig. Buk at tidom 
volapiiki obe balidna. Man et, kel binom deutel, 
piikom nelijapiiki badiko, ab sevom volapiiki gudiko. 
Dels goloms vifik, e no labobs timi modik. 

The dog eats fast. You write well [goodly]. We speak 
Volapuk badly. I write three letters twice in a week. We 
buy books cheaply ["cheaply " after "buy"]. We buy cheap 
books. The merchant buys cheap and sells dear. 



DEGREES. 21 

DEGREES. 

To form the comparativ and superlativ degrees, the suf- 
fixes urn, iin, are used. 

Gudik, good ; gudikum, better ; gudikun, best. 

Gudiko, well ; gudikumo, better, in a better manner ; 
gudikiino, in the best manner. 

These endings um, iin, may be added even to nouns ; 
fleniin obik, my best friend. Binom solatum ka ob, he is 
more of a soldier than I. 

Umo, iino, are also used as separate words meaning in 
greater degree, in the greatest degree. Binom umo solat ka 
bolitel, he is more of a soldier than of a politician. 

EXERCISER 16. 
Ka, than. as, as. Suno, soon. 

Binob baledikum ka om. Buk at binom gudikum 
ka et. Dom obsik no binom so gletik as olsik ; binom 
smalikum. Penol gudikumo ka ob. Binob flen ola 
divodikiin. Spelob das binol in saun gudik, o flen 
divikiin ! Volapiik binom piik nefikulikiin in vol lolik. 

I am more healthy than you. I have larger hands than 
you. The dog has larger feet than the cat. What book is the 
best in the whole world ? j/I have not so many books as you, 
but I read more [books]. What is the easiest language in the 
whole world ? I do not know a language which is easier than 
Volapuk. 

TENSES. 

Each of the tenses has one of the vowels as its peculiar 
sign : [a,] a, e, i, o, u, 

for the present, or patiip a 

for the past, or patiip a 

(imperfect) 

for the perfect, or petiip e 

for the past-perfect, or pitiip i 

(pluperfect) 

for the future, or potiip o 

for the future perfect, or putiip u 



22 TENSES. 

These vowels when prefixed to the verb are called tense- 
signs or augments. 

The present-sign, a, is omitted in the activ voice. 

Binob, I am ; abinol, you were ; ebinom, he has been ; 
ibinof, she had been ; obinos, it will be ; ubinon, one will 
have been. 

In English, most of the tenses are expressed by using the 
auxiliary verbs, have, shall and will ; while in Volapiik there 
are no such auxiliaries, the verb-form consisting of a single 
word. 

The word "do" is used in English as an auxiliary denoting 
emphasis, as, "I do believe." In Volapiik this cannot be 
translated otherwise than "I believe." 

The same tense-vowels, 

a, a, e, i, o, u, 

are used with some words other than verbs, when time is to be 
distinguished. 

adelo, to-day. 

adelo, yesterday. 

odelo, to-morrow. 

udelo, day-after-to-morrow. 

amulo, this month. 

omulo, uyelo, etc. 



EXXRR.CISE; 17. 

Put the following words into all the tenses, giving the 
meaning of each : 

Komob. Golol. Getom. Nagof. Lomibos. Sagon. 
Labobs. Binols. Sumoms. 

O flen divikiin ! egetob penedi ola blefik e pidob das 
ebinol maladik. Spelob das uvedol suno saunikum e 
das ovisitol obis omulo. 

Dear friend : the long letter, which you wrote to me, has 
pleased me (kimefal) very much. I hope that I shall soon 
have got better, and that I shall see you again next year. 



EMILY LM'WTOSH, 



THE PASSIV VOICE. 23 

THE PASSIV VOICE. 

All the tenses of the passiv voice commence with the letter 
p. Therefore the passiv tense-augments are, 

present pa- palofob, I am loved. 

imperfect pa- palogol, yon were seen. 

perfect pe- peflapom, he has been struck. 

pluperfect pi- piropof, she had been interrupted. 

future po- posagos, it will be said. 

future perpect pu- pununon, one will have been 

informed. 

In English, a present passiv is often really perfect in signi- 
fication ; as, "the house is finished," dom pefinom." On 
the other hand we use what is, apparently, an activ form in a 
passiv sense, as, "the house is building," meaning "the house 
is being built," ,,dom pabumom." In all such cases we must 
consider the sense and not the sound. 



is. 

Fa, by. 

Nelijapiik papiikom in Nelij, Pebaltats, Kanadan, 
Talop e lans votik. Volapiik potidom in juls valik. 
Volapiik padatuvom fa sol Schleyer. Fluks poseloms 
delido ayelo; paseloms nedelido ayelo. Dom gletik 
pabumom in siit telsekilid. 

Many children are educated in the schools of America ; 
many have been educated and many will be educated. Books 
are sold by the merchant, whose store is in 42nd street. These 
books are not mine ; they are sold. [Is this patiip ?] What 
language is spoken in America ? 



THE INFINITIV. 

The verbs given so far have been in the form which simply 
asserts, called the indicativ mood. 

The infinitiv mood, or verb-noun, has the ending -on. It 
is usually, though not always, preceded in English by to. In 
Volapiik it may be in various tenses : patiip, petiip, potiip, 
or putiip. 



24 THE INFINITIV. 

Logon, to see. Elogon, to have seen. Ologon, to be 
about to see (as we cannot say to shall). Ulogon, to be about 
to have seen. 

Liladon binos pofudik, to read is profitable. 
Liladam binom pofudik, reading is profitable. 

Notice that the neuter-impersonal verb, binos, is used with 
the infinitiv as subject. 

Vilob liladon buki at, I wish to read this book. 
Opofiidos alime eliladon buki at, It will benefit every 

one to have read this book. 
Kanob liladon, I can read. 

The verbs may, can, must (called by some grammarians, 
signs of the potential mood), let, dare, etc., have no to after 
them in English, yet the verb following them is in the infinitiv. 

Mutob piikon, I must speak (I am obliged to speak). 

Dalob sagon, I may say (am permitted to say). 

Letom puli golon, he lets the boy go ; he allows the boy 

to go. 

Konsalob olis komon, I advise you to come. 
Olemob buki al studon volapiiki, I shall buy a book, to 

study Volapiik. 

Here "to" means "in order to." In this case the infinitiv 
must be preceded by al. To test ( al blufon ") whether al 
should be used or not, see if you can change the English 
phrase into an equivalent one containing "for, "or if it answers 
the question ' ' for what ? " 

I shall buy a book (for what ?) to study Volapiik. 

Osegolob adelo al spaton, I shall go out to walk (for 

walking) to-day. 
Eblibob in zif al lemon klotis, I have remained in the 

city in order to buy clothes. 
No mutobs lifbn al fidon, sod fidon al lifbn, we must 

not live to eat, but eat to live. 

The English verb-noun in -ing must be translated by the 
infinitiv. 

Fidon zesiidos al lifbn, eating is necessary for living. 



THE PARTICIPLE. 25 

The infinitiv, being a kind of verb-noun, may be declined, 
tho' this seldom occurs. 

Lof studona, the love of studying. 

It is permitted to insert the personal pronouns before the 
ending -on in order to indicate the subject. 

Binobon u nebinobon ! [for me] to be or not to be ! 

The infinitiv in the passiv voice is formed in the same way, 
and is subject to the same rules. 
Pamilagon, to be admired. 
Pevunon, to have been wounded. 

Pomaton, to be about to be married, to be going to be 
married. 

EXERCISE 19. 

Lofob fidon fluki. No vilob liladon bukis modik, sod 
gudikis. Eseilon binos ofen gudikum ka epiikon. Men 
nonik kanom nolon valikosi. Kim okanom numon 
stelis sila u tons mela ? Binob in jul al studon, no al 
pledon. Olemob bukis al lenadon volapiiki. Sotol 
studon volapiiki al kanon piikon ko nets valik. 

I like to read good books. I wish to see the stars. To 
read is better than to play. We ought to buy a house if we 
can buy it cheap. This man can read six languages and speak 
three ; he likes to study and he has time to study. It is better 
to have loved and lost than not to have loved. 



THE PARTICIPLE. 

The participle is a verb-adjectiv. Its ending is -61, corres- 
ponding to -ing, -ed. It may be in the activ or passiv voice, 
and in any tense, tho' the patiip, petiip and potiip are the most 
common. 

Logol, seeing. 

Elogol, having seen. 

Ologol, about to see, being about to see. 

Palogol, seen, being seen. 

Pelogol, seen, having been seen. 

Pologol, about to be seen. 



26 THE IMPERATIV. 

It is often necessary to examin English passiv participles 
very carefully, to determine what tense they really signify. 

The house seen in the distance, dom palogol in fag. 

The house built on a rock, dom pebumol su klif. 

If we turn the sentence into the activ form it will be clearer. 
The house which we see in the distance. The house which 
some one has built (not is building) on a rock. 

There is another form of the participle, slightly differing 
from the future, and having the augment 6 instead of o. Its 
meaning is that which must or ought to do something, or that 
which must or ought to be done. 

Obinol, that which ought to be. 

Pofinol, to be finished. 

Poks pomenodol, errors to be corrected. 

Poks pomenodol, errors which will be corrected. 



EXERCISE; 2O. 

O sol pelestimol ! Eliladol vobuki ola nitedik, e no 
kanol kapalon dilis anik, penob ole penedi at al sakon 
va vilol seplanon obe setis sukol. 

Honored Sir : Having received your letter and not having 
had time to write to you this week, I hope that you will excuse 
the unavoidable (not-to-be-avoided) delay. 



THE IMPERATIV. 

The ending of the simple imperativ is 6d, following the 
person-ending. 

Gololod ! Go ! (to one person. ) 

Gololsod ! Go ! (to more than one person.) 

Pafbgivolsod ! Be ye forgiven ! 

Lit binomod ! Let there be light ! (Be light !) 

Senitonod ! Pay attention ! (indefinitely.) 

There are two modifications of the imperativ, the courteous 
or softened form in -6s and the harsh form in -6z ; called by 
some grammarians the optativ and the jussiv. The former 
expresses a request and the latter a positiv command. 



THE CONDITIONAL AND CONJUNCTIV. 27 

21. 



Give four dollars to this poor boy. Please excuse the 
liberty which I take. Please visit us in our new house. Please 
answer this letter soon. Kill that snake ! Remain in the 
house. Please mail me three copies of your new book. Accept 
my cordial salutations. Let each boy take his book and read. 

Givolod bodi mane pofik. Komolsos al visiton obis 
in dom obas nulik. Sekusadolos obe no egepiikon 
penede olik sunumo. Gololoz se dom ! Potolos obe 
samadis fol vodasbuka nelijik. Pul alik sumomod peni 
okik e penomod. Blibolos in gad. 



THE CONDITIONAL AND CONJUNCTIV. 

The conditional mood expresses something not as actually 
occurring, but as what would be, under a certain supposition. 
The conjunctiv is the mood which expresses this supposition, 
preceded by if, if. 

These two moods are formed by adding to the patiip or 
pitiip the endings -6v and -la. The latter is written with a 
hyphen and the accent remains on the preceding syllable. 

If abinob-la liegik, abinohjcw givik, if I were rich I 
would be generous. 

Ibinomov givik, if ibinom-la liegik, he would have been 
generous if he had been rich. 



THE POTENTIAL. 

A form seldom used, but mentioned by Schleyer, has the 
ending -ox, and the meaning might possibly. 

Pelomox, he might possibly pay. 



28 THE POTENTIAL. 

EXERCISE 22. 

Alofobov mani at, if abinom-la gudikum. If agolobs- 
la vadelo al spaton, abinosov saunlik. If agolols-la 
adelo al spaton, blinolsos buki nulik, keli abonedob, 
de bukatedam. Binosov galod gletik obe, geton penedi 
lonedik de ol. If no abinos-la so vamik, alofobov visiton 
flenis obsik in zif. 

If I should see the teacher to-day I would give him the book 
which he wishes to see. This book would be useful to you if 
you should wish to study the French language. If you had 
seen this man in the garden he would have spoken to you. If 
you should travel in Europe you would hear many languages. 



THE INTERROGATE FORM. 

In English we change an assertion into a question by 
changing the order of the words, 

I have. Have I ? 

He will go. Will he go ? 
You have seen. Have you seen ? 

But we seldom put a verb, unless an auxiliary, before the sub- 
ject. We use, instead, the emphatic form with do. 

You go. Do you go ? instead of Go you ? 
He speaks. Does he speak ? 

In Volapiik the sign of the question is the syllable li, 
generally placed either before or after the verb and united to it 
by a hyphen. The accent of the verb is unchanged. Li 
should not be placed after the verb when this would bring two 
1's or three consonants together, as li-binoms ? not binoms- 
li? 

Man binom gudik, Man binom-li gudik ? 

Labob, Labob-li ? 

Ogoloms, Li-ogoloms ? 

Elogols, Li-egolols ? 



THE INTERROGATE FORM. 29 

If the sentence contains an interrogativ word, such as, 
who ? which ? what? how ? when ? where? li is unnecessary. 

Kim binom man at ? Who is this man? 

Man kiom binom at ? What man is this ? 

Kipladi man at golom ? Where (whither) is this man 

going ? 



EXKERCISK 23. 

Kikod ? why ? Kiplad or kiop ? where ? Kipladi ? 
where (to what place) ? Kiiip or kitim ? when ? Liko ? how ? 
These are interrogativs which do not require -li. 

Stadon, to be [in a certain state or condition], to do, as 
in " how do you do?" 

Liko stadol, o sol ! ? Stadob gudiko, danob ole (or 
d^rsis). Li-ebinol lonedo in zif ? No lonedo, ekomob 
bietimo de Madrid. Binom-li Madrid zif jonik ? 
Binom lejonik; ilofobov blibon us lonedumo. Kiop 
lorn olik binom ? Lorn obik binom in Boston, ab labob 
flenis modikin zif at. Li-estudol flentapuki ? Estudob 
flentapiiki ab no kanob piikon omi gudiko. Li-kapalol 
valikosi keli liladol ? Si, o sol ! ti valikosi. 

Have you seen my father to-day ? No, sir ; is he not in 
the house ? Have you read the newspapers to-day ? I have 
not had time to read. How is your father to-day? Thanks ; 
he is (stadom) much better. His many friends will have 
much pleasure to know it. 



THE FREQUENTATIV FORM OR AORIST. 

When a verb refers to the habitual performance of an 
action, this may be indicated by adding the letter i (pronounced 
as a separate syllable) to the tense augment. Thus, 

ai-, ai-, ei-, ii-, oi-, ui-. 
pai-, pai-, pei-, pii-, poi-, pui-. 



30 THE FREQUENTATIV FORM OR AORIST. 

In English we have no special form for habitual action ; 
but, on the other hand, we use the verb to be with the parti- 
ciple in -ing to express action continuing temporarily. 

Fidob bodi, I am eating bread. 

Aifidob bodi, I eat bread (am in the habit of eating bread). 
Apenob penedi, I wrote a letter, or I was writing a letter. 
Aipenob penedis modik, I used to write many letters. 

The form " to be ing" is adopted in Volaplik. 

Binob penol, I am writing. 

Ai- is also used as a prefix denoting universality with 
other words. 

Aikel, whoever ; aikitim, whenever ; aikib'p, wherever. 



EXERCISE 24. 

Lio- ? how- ? to what degree ? as lio-gletik ? how large ? 
lio-modik? how many? 

Aispatob vadelo in gad obik. Li-aigebol spatini ? 
No; spatins paigeboms te fa mans baledik; li-tikol das 
binob baledik ? No nolob ; binob yunik, ab aispatob 
ko spatin. Li-aifidol miti vadelo ? No aifidob omi 
maliidelo. Ven abinobs in Flent, aidlinobs vini, ab nu 
ven binobs in Melop aidlinobs vati. Du yels lio-modik 
abinols in Flent ? Du yels kil. 

Do you drink wine ? I drink wine, but now I am drinking 
water. In France they drink [one drinks] wine and not 
water. In Belgium they speak the French and the Dutch 
languages. What language do they speak in Australia ? They 
speak-English [one word]; wherever many Englishmen are, 
one speaks English. 



THE REFLEXIV. 

[n is the same as the 
Vatiikob, I wash. Vatiikobok, I wash myself. 



The reflexiv form is the same as the activ voice with the 
addition of -ok. 



THE REFLEXIV. 31 

An equivalent expression, sometimes used, is 

Vatiikob obi. 
Vatiikol, you wash. ^ Vatukolo^. J you wash 

Vatiikomok, or vatiikom oki, he washes himself. 
(Vatiikom omi would mean he washes him, two different 
persons. ) 

In the plural the s usually follows the ok, but may be made 
to precede it, if that form is thought more euphonious. 
Vatiikoboks, or vatiikobsok, we wash ourselvs. 
Vatiikomoks, they wash themselvs. If the object is exprest 
by a separate pronoun in the plural it is translated "each 
other." Lofomoks, they love themselvs ; Lofoms okis, 
they love each other ; Lofobsok, we love ourselvs ; Lofobs 
obis, we love each other. 



EXXKRCISK 25. 

Dalon, to permit. Muton, must. 

Dalon, to have permission (may). Milton, compel. 

Logobok in lok at. Pladolokos in stul et. Aikel 
lofomok gudikumo ka nileli okik, no binom krit 
velatik; ab krits velatik lofoms okis. Aivatiikobok 
vamodelo. 

I have struck myself with this walking stick. I permit 
myself to address this letter to you. You will kill yourself. 
Please seat yourself and make yourself contented. 
(Formerly dalon-dalb'n, mutdn-miitbn, had converse meanings.) 

PREPOSITIONS AND THE KIMIFAL. 

In English we make a distinction between in and into. 

Into expresses motion from the outside to the interior ; 
while in relates wholly to the interior. 

This distinction is exprest in Volapiik either by putting 
the noun into the kimifal or by adding -i to the preposition. 

Binob in gad, I am in the garden. 

GOl goloS fnf gk^ ( ' am ^ S into the garden. 



32 PREPOSITIONS AND THE KIMIFAL. 

In Volapiik there are other prepositions subject to the same 
distinction ; when they denote place, where, they govern the 
kimfal ; when they denote direction, wither, they govern the 
kimifal or take the ending i. 

Buk seistom su tab, the book lies on the table. 

Seitom buki su tabi, he lays the book on [on to] the 
table. 

This distinction is not always necessary nor always observed, 
and the list, given in Schleyer's grammar, of prepositions which 
may govern the kimifal is incorrect, because based on the 
German prepositions. 

The ending i is sometimes added to adverbs of place, giving 
them the meaning of motion towards. 

Binob domo, I am at home. 

Kipladi golol ? Where are you going [to]? 

Golob domoi, I am going home [ward]. 

Similarly the ending a is used to denote motion from in a 
few words. 

Is, isa, isi. Here, hence, hither. 
Us, usa, usi. There, thence, thither. 
Kiop, ki6pa, kiopi. Where, whence, whither. 

It would seem quite as natural and correct to say de is, de 
us, de kiop ; al (or all) is, al us, al kiop. 

To express duration of time the preposition du is used. 
But sometimes the preposition is omitted (as in English) and 
then the noun may remain in the kimfal or be put into the 
kimifal. Thus there are three forms of expression ; we prefer 
to retain the du. 



urKK dU , y v? kil> 1 1 remained in Rome 

Ab ?bob in Rom ye s kil 1 [d rf -j three 

Abhbob in Rom yehs kil, ) L 



SYNOPSIS OF THE VOLAPUK INFLECTION. 33 

SYNOPSIS OF THE VOLAPUK INFLECTION. 

The changes of form \vhich \vords may take are all con- 



tained in the following table : 
1. Plural Ending 
2. Case Endings 



-S 



nom. 
who? 



-a 

pos. 
whose ? 



3. Gender Prefixes 
Gender Ending 

4. Adjectiv Endings -ik -id 

5. Adverb Endings -O -na 



fern. 



-OS 

neu. 



-um 

comp. 



-e 

dat. 
to whom? 

om- 

mas. 



-un 

sup. 



-1 

obj. 
whom. 



Degrees. 



umo -uno 



6. Person Endings _ob -ol -Om -of -OS -OH 

m. f. n. iiiduf. 

1 2 



7. Tense Augments 

Activ 3.- 



e- 



i- 



3 



o- 



u- 



Passiv 

Freq. Activ 
Passiv 



pa- pa- pe- pi- po- pu- 

pres. imp. per. plup. fut. fat. per. 

does did has had will will have 



ai- ai- ei- n- 01 



ui- 



pai- pai- pel- pu- poi- pui- 



Gerundiv Augments 
8. Mood Endings 



O- 

act. 



po- 



pas. 



-61 -on -6d-6s-6z (-ox) -6v -la -li -ok 

pot. cond. conj. interrog. refl. 



inf. imp. 

9. Preposition Ending 
1O. Interjection Ending 



34 THE USE OF PREPOSITIONS. 

THE USE OF PREPOSITIONS. 

In English we often use one of the common prepositions in 
several different meanings, which may not coincide with the 
meanings of any one Volapuk preposition. In Volapiik it is 
intended that each preposition should have only two meanings, 
the literal and the figurativ. 

The following list is intended for reference in case of doubt : 

It must be remembered also that there are many words in 
English which are used sometimes as prepositions, sometimes 
as adverbs : to run down the hill ; to tear down the house. 

By, the doer, fa ; by, beside, nebii ; by, past, bei ; by, by 
means of, dub ; by, each, a ; a del, day by day ; a tel, 
two by two. 

At, close to, len ; at, in a town, in ; at, o'clock, not trans- 
lated. 

. -j ( In English we use between in speaking of 

[ bevii \ two objects, and among of more than two ; 
( in Volapuk there is no distinction. 

Before, speaking of place, bifii ; speaking of time, blifii. 

After, in time, pos ; after, behind, po. 

Ago; where we use this adverb of time, for example "two 
years ago, " the Volapuk expression is, ' ' before two years. " 
Similarly, for ' ' two years hence, " after two years. 

Of, belonging to, translated by the kimafal ; of, concerning 
(I speak of this subject), do; of, composed of, containing, 
originating from, coming from (a glass of water, Schleyer 
of Constance), de. 

To, the indirect object of a verb, generally meaning in relation 
to, translated by the kimefal ; to, denoting progress to a 
place, al. 

From, departure from, de ; from, on account of, dem or 
demii. 

For, in favor of, in exchange for, plo ; for, instead of, pla ; 
for, during (for years), du ; for, on account of dem or 
demii. 

Towards, direction of movement, al ; towards, disposition 
towards, kol ; towards, nearly (towards three o'clock), za. 



DERIVED PREPOSITIONS INTERJECTIONS. 35 

With, in company with, ko ; with, as an instrument, me. 
But, except, pla, sesumii ; but, only, te. 
Till, until ; jii al, jii in, jii su, jii len, etc. 
Without, deprived of, nen ; without, outside of, plo, mofii. 
About, surrounding, zi ; about, concerning, do ; about, 
approximately, za. 

DERIVED PREPOSITIONS. 

Prepositions derived from nouns end in ii. They are gen- 
erally translated by three English words: a preposition, a noun, 
another preposition. 

Stimii, in honor of. Stim, honor. 

Kodii, by reason of. Kod, cause. 

Sukii, in consequence of. Suk, following. 

Yufii, by aid of. Yuf, aid. 

Danii, thanks to. Dan, thank. 

Tefii, regarding, concerning. Tef, reference. 
Some prepositions are used both with and without the end- 
ing ii, as dem or demii. 

INTERJECTIONS. 

The ending for interjections is 6. Therefore verbs in the 
imperativ simply drop d, and omit personal ending. 
Spido ! Make haste ! 
Stopo! Halt! 
Bafo! Bravo! 



THE USE OF CONJUNCTIONS AND ADVERBS. 

Since many English words are used both as conjunctions 
and as adverbs, we group together the principal difficulties of 
both these parts of speech. 

But, as a preposition, has been explained. But, as a 
conjunction, is ab or sod. Sod is only used after a negativ ; 
it is not this, but (on the contrary) that. Even in this case ab 

may be used. " Not only but also ," is expressed 

by noe soi." 



36 THE USE OF CONJUNCTIONS AND ADVERBS. 

And, e ; before vowels ed is used, though not by all writ- 
ers. For ' ' both and - -" a a " is used. 

As, like in the same manner as, as ; as, in the capacity of, 
as. The verb is generally omitted in the latter case. As, 
since, for the reason that, bi. 

Before, as a preposition, has been explained. Before, as a 
conjunction, is biifo ; look before you leap; before as an 
adverb of time, biifumo ; you said that before. 

That, as a pronoun, at, atos. That, as a conjunction, has 
two meanings expressed by dat and das. Dat means, in 
order that, for the purpose that. Das merely introduces a 
subordinate sentence as a member of a principal one, as, I said 
that he would come. The subordinate sentence "he would 
come " introduced by that, is the object ; that shows it to be 
subordinate. 

Though, conjunction; or although, do. Though, adverb, 
nevertheless, deno. 

Also, i, or id before vowels. 

Nor, ni. "Neither - - nor ," ni ni ." 

If, provided, if. If, whether, va. 
Even if, ifi. 

Until, fill, conjunction, jus ; as a preposition, jii al, jii in, 
etc. 

After, conjunction, na ; preposition, pos; adverb, poso. 

Or, u, or ud before vowels. "Either - - or ," 

,,uf- -ud ." 

When, conjunction, ven, kii, keliip; when? kiiip ? 
kitim ? when, whereupon, e tano. 

Where, conjunction, ko, kelop ; where ? kipp ? kiplad ? 
Yet, referring to time, nog ; yet, nevertheless, yed. 

There, when unemphatic, is frequently untranslatable, as 
in the phrases, there is, there are. There is, there are, have 
quite a different meaning, there being taking in the sense of 
yonder. 



ORDER OF WORDS. 37 

EXERCISE 26. 

PENED. 

1887 balul i6id. 

O sol lestimlik ! Egetob penedi olik de batul 
kilsebalid ayela e galobok levemo das binol in saun 
gudik e das volapiik mekom mostepis so gletik lomii 
ols. Tefu buks, kelis vilol das olemob, ogolob odelo 
ini glezif, ed osiikob omis. Stadobs valiks gudiko e 
glidobs oli e famuli olik. 

Dear Sir : I request that you will mail me your paper 
during one year, addressing it as is written below. I send 
[mail] you one dollar in payment, and remain 

Your friend. 

In volapiik pladon ladyeki pos subsat, e kimifali 
pos velib. 

In English one places the adjectiv before the noun. In 
German the accusativ is placed sometimes before the verb. 



ORDER OF WORDS. 

The exercises have given an idea of the usual order in 
which the words in a sentence are placed. Except that the 
adjectiv follows, instead of preceding the word which it quali- 
fies, this order is about the same as in English. 

The general principle is that the word which limits or 
describes follows that which is limited or described, or, to use 
Prof. Kerckhoffs' expression, the determinant follows the 
determined. 

The predicate or verb follows the subject or kimfal. 

The object or kimifal follows the verb, and the kimefal, 
being a more remote object, is placed still later. 

The kimafal or. possessiv follows the thing possessed. In 
English the possessor comes first if it is expressed by the 
possessiv case, but if expressed by of\\. comes after. 



38 ORDER OF WORDS. 

The adverb follows the verb which it modifies, but if it 
modifies an adjectiv then the adverb precedes the adjectiv. 
This is an apparent exception to the general rule of position ; 
the adverb may, however, be considered as forming a com- 
pound word with the adjectiv ; the rule being, in compound 
words, the opposit to the rule of position, viz., that the 
determinant precedes the determined. 

The negativ adverb no precedes the word which it denies, 
on the same principle. 

Although the regular order of words in a sentence is that 
just explained, yet it is not rigorously fixed. For the sake of 
emphasis or special effect words may be transposed, provided 
the sense be not obscured. The terminations often enable 
such transposition to take place without confusion. 

Thus, "the man loves the woman," may be expressed in 
several ways : 

1. Man lofom vomi. 

2. Vomi lofom man. 

3. Lofom man vomi. 

4. Vomi man lofom. 

5. Man vomi lofom. 

We give these forms because they may occasionally be met 
with in reading ; we recommend, however, that the regular 
form, No. i, be habitually used. 

Form No. 5, where the kimifal precedes the verb, is one 
which German writers of Volapiik are fond of using in subor- 
dinate sentences, following the order of their own language. 
For example, they will say 

If man vomi lofom," 

although without the if" they would follow the natural order 
man lofom vomi." This is a German idiom and has 
nothing to recommend it in Volapiik. 

If we examin the English sentence "the man loves the 
woman " we see that no transposition can take place without 
destroying the sense, because we can only distinguish the 
subject from the object by position. If we had a different 
ending for the objectiv, like the kimifal, then we might trans- 
pose. 



ORDER OF WORDS. 



39 



KXKRCISK 2,7. 

In this reading exercise the left-hand column contains a 
translation from the German, in which the words are, to a great 
extent, arranged in the German order, too much so, I think. 
The verb is placed at the end of the sentence or clause without 
any apparent reason for this position, except that in the German 
original it is at the end. In the right-hand column the same 
words are re-arranged with correction of some other German- 



isms. 

INVERTED ORDER. 

Glut ledik tegom sili 
kel jiinu yulibik ebinom. 
Yono flamom filakolum, 
tegopi mena kosumol, 
kel omi ed omikis esavom. 
Noli binoms valiids atoz?* 
Si, atoz binoms valiids 
fata ko kels nonik fed 
tenalik binos al fedon." 
Ga ekusi! Lei it, kel 
domi et avilom noson, 
cQsislifom al tali, nen 
damon. Nam jekik, 
vali duzukol, menaladi 
fulol ko tlep e jek, golom 
biido menas du voli, 
tiki p o 1 6 1 da oti ko 
vif nesuemik. 



NATURAL ORDER. 

Glut ledik tegom sili 
kel ebinom jiinu yulibik. 
Filakolum flamom yono, 
kosumol tegopi mena 
kel esavom omi ed omikis. 
No-li ats binoms valiids ? 
Si, ats binoms valiids 
fata ko kels nonik fed 
tenalik binom pofedol." 
Ga, ekusi! Lelit, kel 
avilom noson domi et, 
disislifom al tali nen 
damon. Nam jekik, 
duzukol vali, fulol mena- 
ladi ko tlep e jek, golom 
biidii m e n s da vol, 
polol tiki da ot ko 
vif nesuemik. 



IDIOMATIC EXPRESSIONS. 

In English there are certain peculiarities of expression, 
which we dc not notice until our attention is called to them 
by the study of other languages. It is therefore dangerous to 
translate literally into Volapiik unless we first reflect upon the 
English phrase and are sure that it means literally and exactly 
what it says. It is safest, in regard to Volapiik, as well as 
other languages, to frame sentences on the model of those 
which have been composed by authors of known correctness. 



* In the earlier editions of the grammar oz was given as a permissible plural of os. 



40 IDIOMATIC EXPRESSIONS. 

Correspondents of different nationalities may be of mutual 
assistance in pointing out phrases which are difficult to under- 
stand, and requesting a repetition of the idea in different words. 
This alteration will itself be a valuable exercise. The various 
Volapuk periodicals give from time to time notices of societies 
in various cities and towns of Europe. By writing to the 
president of one of these societies a correspondent may be 
secured, probably interested in the same pursuits as the appli- 
cant. 

A few cautions as to idiomatic expressions are given below : 

1. The distinction between the verbs " have, be, do," etc., 
when used as principal verbs and as auxiliaries, must be 
carefully watched. 

2. In such phrases as " there is, there are," there, as already 
stated, is untranslatable. Yet it has a value ; it shows that the 
verb to be has its meaning to exist, and that it is not a, mere 
copula. For example : 

There is a Volapuk society in Constance ; 
The Volapuk Society in Constance is famous. 

Is in the latter sentence is a copula, attributing the quality 
famous to the Society ; in the former sentence the affirmation 
is that such a society exists. It is allowed by usage in 
Volapuk to mark this distinction by placing the verb before the 
subject, as, 

1. Binom Volapiikaklub in Konstanz, or 

Volapiikaklub sibinom in Konstanz. 

2. Volapiikaklub in Konstanz binom famik. 

3. Besides the articles a, an, the, we use the words some 
and any as a kind of partitiv articles, and these are also omitted 
in Volapuk, as they add nothing to the sense. 

Have you any money ? ) Li . labol moni ? 

or, have you money ? } 
I have some money, | L b fe . 

or I have money. ) 

In the negativ we use no or not any. 

( No labob moni, 

I have no money, j or 

or, I have not [any] money. 1 Labob 



DERIVATION OF WORDS. 41 



DERIVATION OF WORDS. 

The simplest ideas are represented by radicals of one 
syllable. There are also radicals of two syllables, expressing 
somewhat more complex ideas. 

The radicals have been taken principally from the following 
languages : English, Latin, German and French. More mate- 
rial has been taken from the English than from any other 
language. The English words are, however, much modified 
in adapting them to Volapiik. 

1. The spelling is changed, the pronunciation being pre- 
served or nearly so. 

Jip, sheep. Lof, love. 

Kipon, to keep. Giv, give. 

Komon, to come. Sin, sin. 
Gudik, good. 

2. Consonants are dropt or changed when there would be 
any difficulty of pronunciation. 

Vol, world. Piikon, to speak. 

Tat, state. Ted, trade. 

Tav, travel. Tif, (thief) stealing. 

3. The letter r is specially avoided ; 1 being frequently 
substituted. . 

Glen, grain. Glet, great. 

Bil, beer. Telegaf, telegraph. 

Blod, brother. Flen, friend. 

4. As radicals seldom begin or end in a vowel the conso- 
nants n or 1 are added, or the letters are transposed. 

Pel, pay. Lep, ape. 

Love-, over-. Nidian, Indian. 

Nelijik, English. Nulik, new. 

From the radicals other words are formed by compounding, 
by prefixing and by suffixing. 



42 COMPOUND WORDS. 

COMPOUND WORDS. 

In forming compound words the rule of word placing is 
exactly reversed, and the determinant precedes the determined. 

A compound noun is formed by inserting the vowel a 
between the determining word and the principal word. 

Vol-a-piik, wqrld-language. 

Potamon, postage (post-money). 

Piikatidel, language teacher. 

Flentapiik, language of France, French language. 

Yagadog, hunting dog, hound. 

Nulayel, new-year. 

The first part of the compound may be considered as the 
kimafal, and usually the meaning of the compound may be 
expressed by placing it after the principal word either in the 
kimafal or in the adjectiv form ; piik vola, mon ,potik, 
tidel piikas, piik flentik, dog yagik, yel nulik. But the 
meaning of the compound word is more specialized. Piik 
vola may mean a language of the world, any language of the 
world, while volapiik means a language understood through 
the whole world. 

In a few compounds instead of a the syllables as, i and o, 
are used as connectivs, tho' there seems to be no settled rule. 

Vodasbuk, dictionary. 
Polivegam, wandering astray. 

Sometimes three nouns are compounded together, but care 
must be taken not to produce too long words. 

Volapiikatidel, universal-language-teacher. 



PREFIXES. 

Words formed by prefixing syllables are in reality a kind of 
compounds in which the first part is intimately blended with 
the second. For example, in glezif, a capital, composed of 
prefix gle- -|- noun zif, 

great town ; 

zif is the principal word and gle- the determinant. 



PREFIXES. 43 

Gle- is a contraction of the adjectiv gletik or of its radical 
glet, greatness. Many other prefixes are similarly formed from 
nouns and adjectivs. 

Sma-, from smalik, small ; smabed, nest (little bed). 
Bla-, from blagik, black ; Blafot, the Black Forest. 
Vie-, from vietik, white ; viebod, white bread. 
Ba-, from bal, one ; bafom, uniformity. 

M6-, from modik, many, much ; mopiikik, polyglot ; 
moflanik, many-sided. 

Si-, from sil, heaven ; prefix of constellations or zodiacal 
signs : Sijip, Aries ; Sijutel, Sagittarius ; Sifits, Pisces. 

Nolii-, Sulii-, Lefu-, Vesu-, from Noliid, Sulud, 
Lefiid, Vesiid, North, South, East, West ; 
Noliimelop, North America; Vesiinidan, West 
Indies. 

Ba-, from bapik, low, and va-, from valik, all, with a 
change of vowel. 

Other prefixes are simple prepositions, and most of them 
can be so used. 

Bevii, between, inter- ; beviinetik, international. 

Bif, before (in place), contracted to bi-, pre- ; bisiedon, 
to preside. 

De, from; de-, ab-, off-, away; defal, falling off; 
defiledon, to burn off; deyulon, to abjure. 

Ko-, ke- ; with ; com-, con-, syn- ; kokom, coming to- 
gether; kelied, compassion; kevobel, colaborer; 
kezenodon, to concentrate. 

Len-, towards, ad- ; lenpiik, address ; lensumon, to 
assume, take to one's-self. 

Love-, over, super- ; lovedugon, to lead over ; 
lovelogon, to overlook ; lovepenad, superscription, 
something written over ; lovepolam, translation, 



44 PREFIXES. 

There are also prefix-syllables which never occur separately 
and are not contractions of other words. The following are 
the most important of these inseparable prefixes : 

Ne-, negativ, or contrary ; un-, in-, dis-, non-, -less ; 
neflen, enemy (unfriend); nelab, want (opposit of lab, 
possession); det, right [hand]; nedet, left; nedanik, 
ungrateful ; nebin, non-existence. 

Le- ; intensiv ; very, highly, chief, arch- ; legudik, very 
good; legletik, very great; lebijop, archbishop; 
lezif, large city (glezif is a capital). Gle- indicates 
the highest or most important of its kind. 

Lu-, small, insignificant, bad or contemptible. This prefix 
is frequently used where in English we use different 
words. Beg, a request, lubegel, a beggar, mendicant; 
lufat, a step-father ; lak, a lake, lulak, a pond ; sanel, 
a physician, lusanel, a quack ; solel, a ruler, lusolel, 
a tyrant ; vomik, feminin, luvomik, effeminate. 

(See suffix -il for a list of augmentativs and diminutivs.) 

Ge-, back, re- ; gepiik, reply ; gekipon, to keep back. 

Be- is said to strengthen the meaning of the radical ; it 
frequently means to cause or confer the thing expressed 
by the radical. 

Da- denotes the completion of an action or the attainment 
of an object. 



SUFFIXES. 

Some suffixeo are formed by cutting off the beginnings of 
nouns. 

From mul, month, -ul as a termination for the names of 
months. There are two sets of names for the months: 
one derived from the numerals, the other from the 
Roman names, 



January, balul or yanul. 

February, telul or febul. 

March, kilul or mazul. 

April, folul or apul. 

May, lulul or mayul. 

June, malul or yunul. 



July, velul or yulul. 

August, jolul or gustul. 
September, ziilul or setul. 
October, balsul or otul. 
November, babul or novul. 
December, batul or dekul. 



SUFFIXES. 45 

From Ian, country, -an as a termination for names of 

countries or states. 

Cinan, China. Bayan, Bavaria. Lusan, Russia. 
From dup, hour, -up as a termination for a portion of time. 

Tidiip, a lesson (teaching time). 
Kiiip ? when ? at what time ? 
Patiip, the present tense. 
Yeliip, the course of a year. 
From top, place, 

(1) -op, for the divisions of the earth. 

Yulop, Europe. Silop, Asia. 

Fikop, Africa. Melop, America. 

Talop, Australia. 

(2) -op, for a place. 

Kiop ? where ? 
Maladop, a hospital. 

The following endings have no meaning, except in composition: 
-el, -er ; one who does, a person. 

Mekel, a maker, from mekon, to make. 
Datuvel, discoverer, from datuv, discovering. 
Tidel, teacher. 

This ending occurs very frequently. It denotes also an in- 
habitant of a country. 

Melopel, an American. Nelijel, Englishman. 
Deutel, a German. Flentel, Frenchman. 

-al and -an also refer to persons. Al implies dignity or 

superiority. 

-ef is a collection of persons ; -em, of things. 
-en is an establishment for a trade (-ery). 
-af, names of animals ; -it, of birds ; -in, of substances. 
-ip, diseases ; -6m, apparatus ; -av, sciences. 
-al, -am, -of, abstract nouns ; al, character ; -am, action ; 

-of, quality, or state. 
-il, diminutiv ; -et, -kin, -ling ; domil, a little house ; 

ganil, gosling. 



46 SUFFIXES. 

The following illustration shows the various gradations of 
diminutiv and augmentativ words in Volapiik : 

luzifil, wretched little town, 

smazifil, little hamlet, 

zifil, little town, 

luzif, wretched town, 

smazif, village, 

zif, town, 

lulezif, big ugly city, 

lezif, city, 

glezif, important city or capital. 

luglezif, miserable great city, 

leglezif, metropolis. 

The endings -ik, -el, -am, are the most common, and 
almost every radical may assume them. In our vocabulary 
we frequently give the radical only or one of these derivativs, 
leaving the others to be inferred. 

From any radical denoting a quality may be formed, by 
adding ik, an adjectiv attributing that quality, as gud, good- 
ness, gudik, good ; jap, sharpness, japik, sharp. Thus 
dropping ness is equivalent to adding ik, or vice versa. In this 
case we usually give the adjectiv only, leaving the student to 
drop the ik and add the ness; or we give the noun only, leaving 
him to drop the ness and add the ik. 

Every root has, or may have, an adjectiv form in ik, but 
there is not always a corresponding English adjectiv. Many 
adjectivs are entirely lacking in English. We have no such 
word, for example, as " to-daily," and we use the possessiv, 
"to-day's newspaper;" but in Volapiik, gased adelik." We 
have "golden" derived from "gold," but have no adjectiv 
derived from "iron." But in Volapiik ,,goludik, lelik, 
silefik," are regularly formed from goliid, lei, silef," and 
in translating from English we must be careful to distinguish ; 
in phrases like "silver watch," treating "silver" as an adjectiv ; 
., glok silefik." Whole phrases are also rendered by an 
adjectiv in ik or an adverb in iko ; the adjectiv being used if 
the phrase qualifies a noun, the adverb, if it qualifies a verb. 

Many words are used both as nouns and as verbs in 
Volapiik and in English. Thus we speak of a name and to 



EXAMPLE OF DERIVATION. 47 

name, nem and nemon ; a reward and to reward, mesed and 
mesedon. In this case we add the syllable -on as an indica- 
tion that the same words are used as nouns and as verbs. But 
if -on or -ik be enclosed in parenthesis we mean that a slight 
but obvious change is made in passing from one English part 
of speech to another. 

Any verb may form a noun in am, which expresses the 
ac//'0 of the verb, like our words in -tion ; for example, 
plepalon, to prepare, plepalam, preparation. 

Almost any verb may form a noun in el, which expresses 
the doer of the action, as plepalel, a preparer ; studon, to 
study, studel, a student. 



EXAMPLE OF DERIVATION. 

(From Kerckhoff's Complete Course.) 

Piik, language, speech ; piikik, linguistic, pertaining to lan- 
guage ; piikatidel, language teacher ; piikapok, defect of 
speech ; piikon, to speak ; piikonabid, piikonamod, 
manner of speech ; motapiik, mother tongue ; volapiik, 
universal language. 

Piikat, oration ; piikatil, little speech ; [piikatel, orator ;] 
telapiikat, dialogue. 

Piikav, philology ; piikavik, philological. 

Puked, saying ; piikedik, sententious ; piikedavod, proverb; 
piikedavodik, proverbial ; valapiiked, motto. 

Piikel, orator, speaker ; piikelik, oratorical ; mopiikel, poly- 
glot, speaker of many languages. 

Piikof, eloquence ; piikofik, eloquent ; piikofav, rhetoric ; 
piikofavik, rhetorical. 

Piikot, talk ; piikotik, talkativ ; okopiikot, soliloquy 

Bepiik, discussion ; bepiikon, to discuss. 

Bipuk, preface. 

Gepiik, answer ; gepiikon, to answer. 

Lepiik, assertion, affirmation ; lepiikon, to assert, to affirm. 



48 EXAMPLE OF DERIVATION. 

Lenpiik, address ; lenpiikon, to address. 

Libapiik, acquittal ; libapiikon, to acquit ("speak free "). 

Lupiik, chatter ; lupiikon, to chatter ; lupiikem, gossip ; 
lupiikot, gossip (that which is said); lupiiklam, stammer- 
ing ; lupiiklon, to stammer. 

Mipiik, mis-speaking, slip of the tongue ; mipiikon, to mis- 
speak. 
Nepiik, silence ; nepiikik, silent ; nepiikon, to keep still. 

Sepiik, pronunciation ; sepiikik, pronounceable ; sepiikad, 
pronouncement (rendering of decision); sepiikam, act of 
pronouncing; sepiikon, to pronounce. 

Tapuk, contradiction ; tapiikik, contradictory ; tapiikon, 
to contradict. 



EXKERCISE: 28. 

VOTAMS FA LASAM VALEMIK TELID. 

In jolul yela 1887 lasam valemik volapiikelas azitom 
in Miinchen, zif Deuta. Lasam at amekom votamis 
anik in noms volapiika, e zesiidos seven votamis at, 
dat kanon liladon bukis pepiibol biif tim lasama. Buk 
obsik pepenom segun noms nulik pestabols fa lasam. 
Ab in penads vonik onoeton : 

1. Das abinoms foms tel tonaba h, c e h, miiedik e 
diifik ; nu labobs fomi te bal, h. 

2. Das abinom fom pliitik, ons," pla ol," kel fom 
(ons) no sibinom nu. 

3. Das nems lonik papenoms segun ton, fonetigo ; 
nu paipenoms segun lotogaf lanas keles lonoms. 

4. Das vokads a, 6, ii alaboms fomis patik, nen 
piinils. 

5. Das ji- as bisilab alabom fetanamali (-). 

6. Das ,ji-* amalom sotimo jimateli dunela e no 
jiduneli it; e das ,of,' pla ,ji,' amalom jiduneli. a.s., 
ji-tidel, vono, jimatel tidela; of-tidel, vom kel tidof, 
jitidel. 



ABRAHAM E P.ALEDAN. 49 

PARABLE ; translated by Schleyer. 
ABRAHAM E BALEDAN. 

Abraham asiedom vono len yan teneda oma, 
yaladol (segun kosom omik) foginelis al lotadon omis. 
Adalogom baledani blegol oki su staf e komol al omi. 
Baled e tobs ifenoms omi. 

Abraham alasumom omi fleno ; abegom omi 
siadonok, avatiikom futis oma, ed ablinom flukis e vati 
flifik. Ab logol das baledan afidom ed adlinom nes 
sagon pleki, asakom omekikod no aleplekom Godi siila. 
Baledan agepiikom das aleplekom te Fili e das no 
asevom godi votik. 

Abraham azunom sovemo demii gesag at das 
ajokom baledani mofii tened. 

Ven at igolom, God avokom Abrahami ed asakom 
omi kiop foginel abinom. Agesagom : ,,ejokobomi 
mofii tened, bi no leplekom oli." God asagom tano 
ome : ,, esufob omi du yels turn do anestimom obi ; ed 
ol no-li akanol sufon omi du neit bal ven no atupom 
oli ? " 

Na Abraham ililom vodis at, agevokom baledani, 
alinkipom omi lotado ed agivom ome tidamis sapik. 

Dunolod id also e pomesedol fa God Abrahama. 

MODEL OF TRANSLATION, 

AND GRAMMATICAL ANALYSIS. 

I give an analysis of the above parable, taking it sentence 
by sentence, and showing how a person, ignorant of the words, 
would go to work and ascertain the meaning by the aid of the 
vocabulary. 

Persons familiar with other languages, and hence accus- 
tomed to translation, may obtain a general idea of the structure 
of Volapiik by following this analysis even before they have at 
all studied the grammar. 

Beginning with the first sentence, we look for the verb. 
When we come to asiedom, we know it to be a verb because 
it has a tense-vowel a as a prefix (of the series a, a, e, i, o, u), 
and a person-ending om (of the series -ob, -ol, -om, -of, -os, 
-on). As om means he, we know that the verb is in the third 



50 MODEL OF TRANSLATION. 

person singular ; as a means " imperfect tense" we know that 
' ' he " did something. What he did is to be found out by 
removing the prefix and the ending which leaves the root sied. 
Looking in the vocabulary we find that sied, as a noun, means 
a seat, and the verb siedon, to sit. Therefore asiedom must 
express, of someone, "he sat." Who sat? As Abraham" 
precedes the verb and is in the kimfal, it answers the question, 
Kim asiedom?" "Who sat?" Asiedom alone would 
have meant "he sat," but we omit the "he" in English when 
the subject is expressed; therefore, 

Abraham asiedom = Abraham sat. 

When the kimfal and the verb are known, the rest of the 
sentence must fall into place to modify these. Vono is, 
judging by the ending o, an adverb, and as it follows 
asiedom it probably is used to modify that verb. Looking 
in the vocabulary we find it means, "once, formerly." 
" Once," that is, not as distinguished from " twice," but " once 
upon a time. " We now have, in the English order, 

Abraham asiedom vono = Abraham once sat. 

As len does not show by its form what part of speech it is 
we must look it up, and we find it to be a preposition meaning 
"at." The word following it, yan, we find to be a noun ; 
as it is in the kimfal (not ending in a vowel) and follows the 
preposition, it is evident that len yan meant either "at a 
door" or "at the door;" which of these it will be cannot yet 
be determined. 

Immediately after yan is a word teneda. From its ending 
in a we know that it is in the kimafal, and answers the question 
"whose?" "whose door?" As tened means tent, yan 
teneda " must mean " tent's door," or rather "door of tent," 
for we seldom use 's in English except in speaking of living 
things. 

Len yan teneda = at door of tent. 

In English we should conventionally expand this into one of 
the following forms : 

at the door of the tent ; 
at the door of a tent ; 
at a door of the tent; 
at a door of a tent. 



MODEL OF TRANSLATION. 51 

But these articles do not add anything whatever to the 
meaning. If an artist were to paint four pictures of Abraham, 

(1) sitting at the door of the tent, 

(2) sitting at the door of a tent, 

(3) sitting at a door of the tent, 

(4) sitting at a door of a tent, 

all four views would be alike, and each would be precisely the 
same as if he had received the briefer description, "at door 
of tent," or "at tent door." 

j, Oma " is another kimafal, and as it immediately follows 
teneda it must answer the question " whose tent ?" Its root, 
om, we recognise as meaning he ; therefore oma means "his " 
and refers to teneda. So that we now have the full meaning 
of the first clause : "Abraham once sat at the door of his 
tent." 

The next word valadol must be a participle as it ends in 
-61, which is like our "-ing." Valad we find in the vocabu- 
lary to mean awaiting ; valadon, to wait for, to await, to 
attend. Therefore valadol must mean either " waiting for, " 
"awaiting," or "attending." 

Now he who awaits or attends must await something or 
some one ; that is, valadon is the kind of verb which is called 
transitiv ; it may have an object. This object must be in the 
kimifal ; that is, must end in i or is. Looking further along 
we find such a word, foginelis. The s tells us it is plural. 
The i that it is in the objectiv or kimifal. This leaves us 
foginel. The ending el refers to a person, and often corre- 
sponds to er in English. We find fogin to mean "a foreign 
country," for which there is no one word in English. Foginel 
means a foreigner, stranger, one from a distant country. 

The words valadol foginelis" mean "awaiting 
strangers." The three words segun kosom omik, as they 
come just after valadol, must modify or explain its meaning. 
Segun is found to be a preposition meaning "according 
to," and kosom, a noun in the kimfal, "custom ;" segun 
kosom" must be "according to custom." The ending -ik 
tells us that omik is an adjectiv ; as adjectivs always follow 
the words they qualify, it must describe kosom. We know 
that ,,om" is "he," and that ,,-ik" is " pertaining to ;" 



52 MODEL OF TRANSLATION. 



omik " is "his." This is another form, equivalent to 
oma ; when the possessor is one of the pronouns ob, ol, om, 
of, OS, on, it may be put in either the adjectiv form or the 
kimafal ; may end either in ik or in a. 

Segun kosom omik = according to his custom. 

Valadol, segun kosom omik, ] j awaiting strangers, ac- 

foginelis j" j cording to his custom. 

We cannot in English place the phrase "according to -his 
custom " where it naturally belongs. The reason for this is 
that we have no separate form for the objectiv, and therefore 
ieel a necessity for placing it as close as possible to the verb so 
that it may be felt as the object. "Awaiting, according to his 
custom, strangers," would sound awkward. 

Al lotadon omis. The ending -on indicates the infinitiv, 
and we have seen that al before the infinitiv gives it the mean- 
ing "in order to ;" altho' "in order" need not be expressed. 
If we look up lotad we find that it means hospitality ; but we 
have in English no verb " to hospitate." We are obliged to 
use some such phrase as "to give hospitality to," " to receive 
hospitably." Omis is the same word ,,om" which we have 
already met several times. This time it is in the kimifal, plural, 
like foginelis, which, in fact, it replaces. 

Al lotadon omis = to offer them hospitality. 
This completes the first sentence. 

We begin the second by searching as before for a verb, 
which we may expect to find marked by its tense- vowel at the 
beginning and its person-ending. We have not far to seek, as 
adalogom has the marks. We see at once that (as in asiedom) 
the framework is he did something. Dalogon is to perceive, 
hence adalogom is he perceived. The subject not being 
expressed the he must stand in its stead. 

Dalog-6n is not a simple word. Da is a prefix, and log 
is the real root. Log, as a noun, means eye ; log-on, the 
verb, is to see. Da, as a prefix, denotes the completion of an 
action or the attainment of the object sought. 



MODEL OF TRANSLATION. 53 

adalogom, being a transitiv verb, should have an object, 
in the kimifal, of course. We readily find this object in the 
next word baledani. This we find to mean " old-man ;" but 
even if baledan were omitted from the vocabulary we could 
discover its meaning from the root baled, age, and the ending 
an (an echo of man), which is applied to persons. 

adalogom baledani = he perceived an old man. 

Blegol is recognised as a participle qualifying baledani, 
which it follows. Blegon is found to mean to bend. Oki is 
the reflexiv pronoun ok, -self in the kimifal. Therefore blegol 
oki is bending himself. It might be expressed in one word, 
blegolok. Su staf is readily found to mean on a staff. Tak- 
ing the phrase together we may translate it "leaning on a 
staff." E, and. Komol is another participle, from komon, 
to come. Al omi, to him ; omi is in the kimifal because al 
denotes motion toward him. This is not indispensable, for al 
om would express the same idea. Al, of itself, conveys the 
idea of direction ; so that there is not the same useful distinc- 
tion as between in and into. 

In the next sentence, seeking first the verb, we recognise it 
in ifenoms by the personal ending oms, they, and the tense- 
prefix i. I we find in the series a, a, e. i, o, u (present, 
imperfect, perfect, pluperfect, future, future perfect); its English 
equivalent is "had;" oms is third person, plural, they; 
therefore we have only to look for the meaning of fen to know 
what "they had " done. Fen being to weary, ifenoms must 
be they had wearied. We now look back for the subject 
which must be plural. Tobs has the plural-sign and is in the 
kimfal. 

Tobs ifenoms = troubles had wearied. 

But we cannot positivly decide upon this until we examin 
the words which precede tobs, for according to the rules of 
position the subject must be at the beginning of the sentence. 
Much depends upon the particle e, for if this is a preposition, 
tobs, tho' in the kimfal, cannot be the subject. E proves, 
however, to be the conjunction and, and baled, the noun, age. 
Baled e tobs, age and troubles, form a compound subject to 
ifenoms. The object omi is at once recognised by its ending. 

Baled e tobs ifenoms omi. } = { *^^ bles had 



54 MODEL OF TRANSLATION. 

The ending oms is masculine, but is used here where in 
English we should expect the neuter. //, as well as he, is 
represented by om. 

The next sentence presents nothing of difficulty ; subject, 
verb (in the third person, singular, imperfect), object, adverb. 
Fleno, in a friendly manner, requires four words in English 
because we do not say friendli-ly. Fleniko would have about 
the same meaning ; the adverb may be formed from the adjec- 
tiv or directly from the noun. 

Abraham alasumom omi j j Abraham received him in 

fleno. j (a friendly manner. 

abegom omi is familiar. Siadonok : ok is the reflexiv 
ending, meaning myself, yourself, himself, etc. , as the case may 
be ; -on is the infinitiv-ending already mentioned ; siadon is 
to seat. Siedon, to sit, is intransitiv ; siadon, to seat, is tfansi- 
tiv. Siadonok is here translated to seat /fo'toself, on account 
of omi. 

abegom omi siadonok = requested him to seat himself. 
And the next clause presents nothing new : 

avatiikom futis oma = washed his feet. 

Ed is the same as e, used before a vowel. If e were used 
here there would be no misunderstanding ; and some writers 
refuse to change e into ed on the ground that there should be 
no variation of form where there is no difference in sense. 
Flifik is an adjectiv since it ends in ik ; it qualifies vati, for it 
immediately follows that word. In English we say "fresh 
water/' in Volapiik the order is "water fresh." 

Ed ablinom flukis | j and brought fruits 

e vati flifik } { and fresh water. 

The first verbal form which we find in the next sentence is 
logol, which we already know to mean ' ' seeing. " Das we 
find to be the conjunction that, therefore the following words, 
baledan," etc. , must be a subordinate sentence, which we 
may take up firsc and translate as if it were standing alone, 



MODEL OF TRANSLATION. 55 

Baledan afidom ed adlinom nes sagon pleki. 

Proceeding in the usual manner to look for the verb, we 
find afidom ; but \ve also find the verb adlinom and the 
conjunction e or ed connecting them. E (or ed) like and in 
English, connects two similar words or phrases as two subjects 
(baled e tobs for example), two predicates, as in this instance, 
two objects (for example flukis e vati flifik), two adverbs, two 
subordinate sentences. Looking for the roots, fid and dlin, 
we find that afidom ed adlinom means, by itself, he ate and 
drank. The subject baledan is a word with which we are 
familiar. On its former occurrence we translated it "an old 
man," but now, as he has been previously mentioned, we use 
the article "the " "the old man ate and drank." 

The following clause nes sagon pleki," we may presume 
to modify the verbs as it follows them. We confirm this by 
finding that nes is a preposition, meaning "without." Nen 
also' means without, but nes is used before infinitivs. Nen, 
however, would be perfectly understood, and may be used 
without confusion. After a preposition we use in English the 
form in -ing ; nes sagon = without saying. The ending -i 
shows that pleki is the object of the verb sagon. Nes sagon 
pleki = without saying a prayer. 

Ab logol das baledan afidom } C But seeing that the old 
ed adlinom nes sagon > = -J man ate and drank with- 
pleki ) ( out saying a prayer 

This participial clause is placed at the beginning of the 
sentence because it qualifies the subject, which is the -om in 
asakom, he asked. Ome is another form of om, the kimefal 
or indirect object. In English the person of whom anything 
is asked is put in the objectiv, but in Volapuk the thing asked 
is considered as the direct object; "he asked [to] him." 
This is indicated in the vocabulary by [bosi eke]; sakon [bosi 
eke], to ask any one anything ; that is, the thing asked is in 
the kimifal, and the person asked in the kimefal. 

The words following this constitute the question which was 
asked, in the exact words Abraham would use, except that 
Abraham would have changed one letter, 



56 MODEL OF TRANSLATION. 

Kikod no aleplekol Godi siila ? 

asakom ome, kikod no aleplekom Godi siila. 

Kikod is found to be an interrogativ adverb, "why?" 
derived from kod, cause ; "what cause?" In the same way 
are formed, kiplad? "what place?" for where? and kitim ? 
" what time ?" for when? This being the connecting word, 
we next take up the sentence in the usual order, beginning with 
the verb aleplekom, which is the same form as asiedom and 
several other verbs given. Leplekon is to worship, being 
derived from plekon, to pray, with the intensiv prefix le. No 
is the negativ particle not ; it is so closely connected with the 
verb which it modifies, or rather reverses, that it is placed 
before like a prefix rather than after as a modifier. No 
aleplekom, he did not worship. What is the object in this 
sentence ? Godi/because it ends in i. No aleplekom Godi 
= he did not worship God. What is siila ? A noun 'in the 
kimafal or "whose" case, answering the question whose? 
of whom ? or of what ? God of what ? God of heaven. 
Here we insert in English a "the" before " God," though it 
would seem more reasonable to say "God of the heaven " than 
"the God of heaven." 

asakom ome, kikod no ) (He asked him why he did not 

aleplekom Godi siila. j { worship the God of heaven. 

In the next sentence it is at once seen that Baledan is the 
subject and agepiikom the verb ; that the old man did some- 
thing denoted by gepiik, which is found to mean reply. The 
old man replied what ? There are two subordinate sentences, 
each beginning with das, that ; these two sentences are con- 
nected by e, and. We may analyse them separately. 

i. aleplekom te Fill. 

What is the verb ? aleplekom, he worshiped. What is 
its subject ? He, expressed by om in the termination. What 
is its object ? Fill, because it ends in i. aleplekom Fili = 
he worshiped Fire. Te, like all words of two letters, is a 
particle of some kind. It is found to be the adverb only. It 
precedes the word to which it refers. 

aleplekom te Fill = he worshiped only Fire (Fire alone). 



MODEL OF TRANSLATION. 57 

2. No asevom godi votik. 

What is the verb ? asevom, he did something ; he 
knew ; no asevom, he did not know. Votik must be an 
adjectiv from its ending ; other, another. 

No asevom godi votik I = j he did no < know wo** god ; 
) ( or, he knew no other god. 

The two replies of the old man can now be translated. 

We have now had all the cases exemplified in the forms of 
om. 

Om, he ; oma, his (of him); ome, to him; omi, him ; 
and we can complete the plural : 

Oms, they; omas, their (of them); omes, to them; 
omis, them. 

The next sentence will now be easily understood upon 
ascertaining the meanings of the separate words. 

The phrase Ven at igolom," although it comes first, 
really modifies avokom. The reason for placing it out of the 
usual order is to place it in the order of time, as will be seen. 
Ven is a conjunction, "when." What is the verb ? Igolom, 
and it is in the pluperfect tense, third person, singular, mascu- 

Hn ; " he had , " is the English formula. Golon, to go ; 

therefore igolom = he had gone. What is the subject ? At 
means this, and refers to baledan, understood. In English it 
is not customary to use this without its noun (when masculin), 
hence we say ' ' the latter. " 

Ven at igolom = when the latter had gone or was gone. 

Observe that "was gone" is not a passiv, altho* it looks 
like one. The auxilliary "am" does not always denote the 
passiv voice, and the meaning must be followed, not the 
sound. 

God avokom Abraham! " will be understood upon 
finding the meaning of vokon, to call ; ed asakom ome, this 
is all familiar. Kiop is the connecting word, an interrogativ 
adverb, where ? 

agesagom, he answered ; this is a synonym of agepiikom. 
Both are formed by prefixing the syllable ge-, which means 



58 MODEL OF TRANSLATION. 

back, re- ; to re-say, to re-speak. The exact words of Abra- 
ham's reply are given, in quotation marks. What is the verb ? 
ejokob ; it is in the perfect tense and first person, singular; " I 
have" done something. " I have thrust." What is the sub- 
ject ? Ob, I ; in the termination of the verb. What is the 
object? Omi, him ; ending in i. Mofii is a preposition; 
any word ending in ii is a preposition. Mofii tened, outside- 
of the-tent. Bi, because, is a conjunction introducing the 
subordinate sentence no leplekom oli," which should now 
be analysed. What is its verb ? Leplekom, present tense, 
third person, singular, masculin ; tells what he does or with no 
what he does not. No leplekom, he does not worship. W T hat 
is the object? Oli (ob-ol-om-of-os-on), thee. 

agesagom : ejokob omi \ ( He answered : ' ' I have thrust 
mofu tened, bi no r = s him outside the tent because 
leplekom oli." ) (he does not worship thee." 

God asagom tano ome, God said then to him ; or, God 
then said to him. 

Esufob omi du yels turn. 

What is the verb ? Esufob, perfect tense, first person, 
singular ; tells what / have done. I have endured. What is 
the object ? Omi, him. Du, is a preposition, during. Yels 
is the plural of yel, a year. The numeral turn is placed after 
its noun. 

Esufob omi du yels turn = l ^ ** * 



Do is a conjunction, connecting the clause anestimom 
obi with the main sentence, as above. 

Do anestimom obi = Though he contemned me. 

In the clause beginning with ed ol " the particle -li, as 
well as the interrogation point, shows that a question is asked. 
First translate the clause as if an assertion, disregarding -li, 
then change it to a question. 

What is the verb ? akanol, imperfect, second person, 
singular, Thou couldst. What is the subject? Ol, expressed 
separately as well as in the termination, making it more 
emphatic. 



MODEL OF TRANSLATION. 59 

Ed ol no-li akanol sufbn omi, and couldst not thou 

endure him, 

du neit bal, during one night, 

ven no atupom oli ? when he did not 

trouble thee ? 

In the next sentence, Na is the conjunction, and the clause 
introduced by it is placed at the first of the sentence for the 
same reason as the clause, Ven at igolom. Vodis at, these 
words ; at is here an adjectiv pronoun. There are, in this 
sentence not two, but three, clauses connected by ed ; they 
begin with the verbs agevokom, alinkipom and agivom. 
The last of these clauses agivom ome tidamis sapik " has 
two objects : tidamis, the direct object or kimifal, and ome, 
the indirect object or kimefal. The order would be more 
strictly logical and regular if ome were placed last. This, 
however, creates no difficulty in understanding. 

Dunolod id also. 

What is the verb ? Dunolod. It is imperativ because it 
ends in 6d ; it is second person, singular, shown by ol ; the 
absence of prefix shows it to be present tense. The root dun 
means to do ; therefore its translation is, do thou ! or simply, 
do ! The other words are merely adverbs. 

Dunolod id also ! = do thou also thus ! 
Pomesedol fa God Abrahama. 

The verb is pomesedol. P shows it to be passiv ; o 

shows it to be future ; po = shall be ed ; ol, shows it to 

be second person, singular, thou shalt be ed. Mesed, is 

reward ; pomesedol, thou shalt be rewarded. 



These sentences have introduced all the cases, both num- 
bers, all the persons, all the tenses, except the future-perfect. 
both voices, and the reflexiv, interrogativ, imperativ, infinitiv, 
and participial forms. Almost all the rules of inflexion and 
construction have been exemplified. 



60 MODEL OF TRANSLATION. 

The following, then, is an outline of the usual course to be 
followed in translating a sentence : 

1. What is the VERB, or predicate? It is recognised by 
its having a person-ending, which will be one of the syllables 
cb, ol, om, of, os, on. If there be more than one verb found 
disregard all subordinate clauses, connected by conjunctions, 
and seek the principal verb. 

2. What is the tense ? What is the person, the number, 
the gender? These are determined by the syllables at the 
beginning and end, and from them may be formed a skeleton 
or framework, which is completed by finding and inserting the 
meaning of the radical. 

3. What is the SUBJECT? Perhaps it is implied in the 
person-ending and not otherwise expressed. If it be expressed 
it must be in the kimfal. Then read these two words together 
as the foundation of the sentence : subject, verb. 

4. Is there an OBJECT? If so it must be in the kimifal ; 
and you now have : kimfal, verb, kimifal. 

5. Is there a more remote or INDIRECT OBJECT? If 
so it is in the kimefal, and completes the four principal parts : 

Kimfal VERB kimifal kimefal 

Each of these four principal words may be followed by 
determinants, words or phrases limiting or modifying its mean- 
ing, and these are last taken up and translated. 



S PO D A M. 



i. 

NEW YORK, 1887, batul 
Sole Schleyer in Konstanz: 
O sol lofik ! 

Vipol vedon bonedel Volapiikableda Zenodik, 
sedob ole in pened at tlati plo maks tel e fenigs mals, suami 
boneda yeisik, e begob das opotol bledi al ladet pepenol diso. 

Diinan olik divodikun, 

John Smith, 

365 Fifth Avenue. 



2. 

CHICAGO, 1887, malul 2oid. 
Soles Mutter und Schultze in Berlin : 
O sols pelestimol ! 

Pened at polovegivom oles fa flen obsik 

e bonedel sol Adolphus Snodgrass kel ovisitom Yulop kodii 
saun e keli kanobs komedon as man pekulivik e digik lotada 
keli klodobs das olofols ome. 

Danol biseo plo flenof, blibobs, 

DUnans olsik divodikun, 

Brown & Jones. 



62 SPODAM. 

3. 

PARIS, telul I5id, 1887. 
Soles So/o/ e K., spulals, 

in Kostroma: 
Sols: 

Penunob fa S. Alexandra/, spodel olsik in zifat, das 
nedols konodeli sevol, pla jafs patik tedadoma olsik, magavi e 
volapiiki. 

Labedob sevis pevipol e sikodo dalob obe lofon oles diinis 
obik plo cal vagik. 

Ss. Gaudin e Langlois in zif obsik la kels binob pecalol, sis 
yels modumik, okanoms givon oles niinis valik kelis odesidols 
tefii ob. Lemano fosefob olis das osteifob melidon konfidi 
keli ugivols obe. 

Valadol gepiiki gonik olsik, blibob. 

D. O. 

Guerin. 



[Blufapened xama al geton dipedi as Spodal Volapiikik de 
Volapiikaklub Flentik, 1887.] 

PARIS, lulul 22id, 1887. 
Sole Nicolescu mfasst: 

Potob ole atoso canapenedis tel sukol : 

Fr. 5000, malul balid su Stihi e K. 

- 2500, velul balselulid su Vladescu. 
Suam : Fr. 7500, su zif olik. 

Noelolos geti omas e kadolos omis klodatii kal obik. Falo 
pel panevilom, begob oli ploteton te canapenedi su Vladescu. 
Nunob oli otiipo das ecanapenedob adelo su ol : 

Fr. 6000 biidii Diamandi mul bal sis dat 
Noetolos canapenedi obik e lasumolos omi gudiko. 

Dunan olik divodikiin, 

Fould. 



SPODAM. 63 

6. 

BOSTON, 1887, babul I5id. 

Labobs stimi nunon oles das eleblimobs in zif at fabltidi 
sobas, labol fiami, JAMES ROBINSON AND COMPANY. Begobs 
olis noeton disopenadis kopanalas e bestimon obis lesuno ko 
boneds olik, kelas pometobs befulami kuladik. 

James Robinson, 
Peter Wilkins. 



6. 

[Blufapened xamas flentik, 1886.] 

ODESSA, kilul 6id, 1886. 
Soles Lacour e Burdel, vinatedals, 

Bordeaux: 

Sedolso's obe dub medam Solas Char Her e K., sedans in 
zif olsik, segun stips kosomik tedadoma olsik, sotis dink de 
vins e ligs kels sukoms : 

Saint Julien, yel 1878, . . flads 300. 

Graves, vietik, yel 1855. . otos 150. 

Vve. Cliquot, . . . flads lank 200. 

Chartreuse, likofbalid, . liats 50. 

Abinobov vemo kotenik if akanob-la geton bonedi obik 
bufii fin mula at. 

Besakolsos Soli Melnikoff in Marseilles, flen e kolanan obik, 
do klodat keli tedadom obik melidom ; sol at egivom obe 
voladalisedi olsik e ekomedom levemo vinis olsik. 

Spelol das sek jafa at balid okodom suno bonedamis nulik, 
blibob 

diinan olsik divodikiin, 

Gruzenizeff. 



L I LA DA M. 
i. 

BISIEDAL GARFIELD. 

Dun balid sola Garfield, bisiedal de Tats pebalol na finam 
calama oma as bisiedal Piibliga legletik et, abinom kidon moti 
e jimateli omik len stunam e betikalam de cifals gletik e pop 
nenumlik lana et, kels abinoms plisenik zale eit. 

Kikod edtmom atosi ? Ibo mote oma edebom sibini, 
nullidi e dadukami, kels eblinoms ome diniti mayedikiin 
fatalana omik ; ed in jimatel oma ituvom jikopaneli fiedik, 
divodik, fagik e stimik in lefulon debis jimatelik e domik ! 

O net labik ! Ol labedol regalis aistiimol ed aistimol tugi 
e fetanis famiilik ! 

Joseph Holden (nelijel). 



2. 

RON. 

Lad nelijik, polol dogi smalik in lams ofik, liiodof al 
valadasal stajena de Lyon. 

Pecalel sembal leloda stopom ofi e sagom : . 

,, Lad, no kanol bekipon dogi olik ko ol. " 

,, Desidob bekipon omi ko ob. " 

,, Atos binos nemogik. Dogs binoms papolol delidii 
tavels e paninkikol in lelodavab patik. " 

,, No oninkikol obiki !" 

,, Oninkikob oliki i : sesum nonik sibinom. " 



LILADAM. 65 

,, Osiadob omi in tavasak obik. " 

,, Atos binos nemogik. " 

,, Esiadob egelo omi in sak obik in Nelij. " 

,, In Flent, mutol konfidon dogi olik pecaleles leloda e 
pelon poli. " 

,, No opelob. Luvob dogi ole. " 

,, Benlino, Lad. " 

Lad murof setis anik zunik e givof dogi pecalele. At 
sumom nimi ab gegivom omi foviko, zenodti smils bosetik 
tavelas. Dog pafulom ko stol ! 

Guigues (flentel). 



3. 

NAPOLEONA POKAGLOK. 

Napoleon abinoin son lavogela Bonaparte baonik ab no 
liegik. Nag ilefulom studis omik su jul militik in Paris, 
pacalom as liotan kanemik. In tim ot alemom oke, de fenigs 
pespalol, pokagloki silefik, ciniifadi badik e nedelidik, kel 
askanom omi levemo in vigs balid. Ven mon adefom liotane 
pofik, kelos ofen azitos, apanom gloki oma. 

In balmil joltum fol pasevokom as limep flentik. Id as 
lelimep, kel rigetom divis valik yulopik, aipolom pokagloki 
baledatik. In pug de Marengo, Napoleon asakom diike de 
Montebello, kel astadom la om, diip kimid abinos. ,, Poka- 
glok oba takom denu, " fovom Napoleon smulol, ed ajonom 
su eiti : ,, Luglok vetik et eikopanom obi su lifavegoba ; sikod 
oiledivob omi. " Vo paikonsefom in famul Napoleonas as meb 
kostik len fatasked legletik. 

Akopanom Napoleoni balid al Elba ed al St. Helena, e ven 
adeilom in balmil joltum telsebal agelutom gloki sone oma 
balsebal-yelik kel ablibom in Schonbrunn nilu Wien, ledom 
omika fatela Franz I de Lostakin. 



66 



LILADAM. 



Pos kela deil agekomom al famuli ; e ven Napoleon kilid 
pavikodom la Sedan, apolom pokagloki baledatik ; kopanom 
omi al Chislehurst ; kilna sukom Napoleone votik al lani 
foginik. Jilimep Eugenie, jiviudel limepa flentik latik akonse- 
fom pokagloki plo son ofa Louis, as pul penemol ,, Lulu." 
Napoleon folid adeilom nog yunik, fagik de fatan omik la 
foetabs Fikopa suliidik. 

Id om apolom gloki ; ab jonels ajonoms suno diipi latik 
oma. Fun omik patuvom peseklotol. Bo polom eiti nu Zulu 
sembal as deki su blot blonik oma. Ko Napoleon latik 
poliidomok pokaglok. 

Vomiil de Keiser ( jinedanel). 



JOHANN MARTIN SCHLEYER. 

Pamotom in Oberlauda, in Badan, e labom nu lifayelis 
lulsemal. Estudom piikis plu ka luls. Apiibom balidna in 
yel 1879 volapiiki omik, kel nu pasevom 
e pagebom su vol lolik. 

Modikna iblufon datikon piiki vale- 
mik u beviinetik, e bliifs et pamekoms 
fa mens sapik ed estudik ; ab bliifam 
nonik pilasumom in gebi plagik. 

Datikel dola at legletik emelidom 
lasevami e danofi menada valik, ab 
lifom nu in Konstanz de baledamon 
smalik pagetol as padel gluga romik 
katolik. No-li binos blig e galod volapiikeles yufon omi ? 




VOCABULARY. 



Volaptik words are printed in heavy type. 

Words which have the same spelling and the same meaning, both in 
Volapllk and in English, are printed in ITALIC CAPITALS. 

Words ot the same meaning which happen to be next each other in the 
alphabetical arrangement are bracketed I 

Many derivativs, formed by adding syllables, are placed under the 
radical, and abbreviated by dropping the radical. See remarks on page 46. 

When an English word is defined by several Volapuk words the 
distinction between these must be found by looking them up in succession. 

a agreeable 



a, by ; a tel, by twos ; 
a del, per day. 

ab, but (conjunction). 

to be able, kanon. 
about, do, za. 
abundance, bundan. 
academy, kadem. 
to accept, lasumon. 
to accompany, kopanon. 
according to, segun. 
to accuse, kusadon. 
acid, ziid. 
act, dun [am], 
to act, dunon. 
adelo, to-day, 
address, ladet,-6n, 
lenpuk,-6n. 



adherent, ziipel. 
adieu, adyo. 
adjectiv, ladyek. 
admonition, monedam. 
to advance, fbdon. 
advantage, bizug. 
advice, konsal. 

adyo ! adieu ! 

affair, din. 

Africa, Fikop. 

African, fikopik, fikopel. 

after, na, po, pos. 

again, denu. 

against, ta. 

age, baled. 

agreeable, plidik. 



agreement 



68 



ataflano 



agreement, balam. 

ai, constantly, habitually. 

aim, zeil. 

air, lut. 

al, to. 

alik, every. 

alim, every one. 

alive, lifik. 

all, valik. 

almanac, kaled. 

almost, ti. 

along, ve. 

alphabet, lafab. 

already, ya. 

also, so, thus. 

also, i. 

alteration, vot (-on), 

votam. 
although, do. 
America, Melop, 

(-ik, -el). 
among, bevii. 
amount, suam. 
and, e. 
angel, lanel. 
angle, gul. 
angry, zunik. 
animal, nim. 
anik, some, 
to announce, nunon. 
to annul, noson. 
another, votik. 
ans, some [people], 
answer, gesag, gepiik. 



to answer, gesagon, 
gepiikon. 

ape, lep. 
apod, apple. 
to appear, jinon. 
appetite, potit. 
apple, apod. 
appropriate, potik. 
April, folul, 
apul. 

arbitrary, viilik. 

arch, bob. 

archbishop, lebijop. 

arithmetic, kalav. 

arm, lam. 

army, milit. 

around, zi. 

article, laltug. 

artillery, kanem. 

as, as, in the capacity of. 

as, as, as. 

to ascend, xanon. 

ascent, xan. 

to be ashamed, jemon. 

Asia, Silop. 

to ask, sakon. 

ass, cuk. 

assembly, lasam. 

assistance, yiif. 

to assure, fosefbn. 

to be astonished, stunon. 

at, this, this one. 

at, len. 

ataflano, on this side. 



attach 



to attach, yiimon. 

to attend, seniton. 

attention, senit. 

August, jolul. 

Australia, Talop. 

Austria, Lostakin. 

author, lautel. 

authority, riget. 

Autumn, flukatim. 

avarice, monal. 

avaricious, monalik. 

to avoid, viton. 

to await, valadon. 

ayelo, this year. 

adelo, yesterday. 

al, towards. 

as, as, similarly to. 

ba, perhaps. 

bachelor, nepematel. 

back, bak. 
(bad, 
| badik. 

bafb ! bravo ! 

bafom, uniformity. 

bag, sak. 
( to bake, 
{ bakon. 

bal, one, i. 

-ad, union. 

-am, agreement. 

-ik, simple. 

-on, to unite. 
balib, beard. 
balid, first. 
balna, once. 



bals, ten. 
balsid, tenth. 
balul, January. 
baliidel, Sunday, 
bam, bench, 
ban, bath, 
bank, lebob. 

baon, nobility (of birth). 

-el, nobleman, 

baron. 

bap, lowness. 
barrel, tub. 
bath, ban. 
battle, pug. 
bak, back. 
balat, pasture. 
baled, age, old age. 

-an, old man. 

-ik, old. 

-at, antiquity. 

-atik, antiquated, 
to be, bin on. 
beard, balib. 
beat, happiness. 
-ik, happy, 
beautiful, jonik. 
beauty, jon. 
to become, vedon. 
BED. 
bee, bien. 
beer, bil. 

before, bifu, bufti, biifu. 
beforehand, biseo. 
befulon, to fill (an order), 
to beg, lubegon. 



beg 



70 



bleinik. 



beg, request. 
begin, beginning. 

-on, to begin, 
to begin, beginon. 
beginning, begin. 
behind, po. 
behold ! eko ! 
bei, by, passing. 
beit, bite, -on. 

bekip, keeping. 

-on, to keep, 
bekon, to beseech. 
bel, mountain. 
Belgium, Beljan. 
belief, klod. 
to believe, klodon. 
Beljan, Belgium, 
bell, glok. 

to belong, lonon [eke]. 
ben, grace, 
bench, bam. 
to bend, blegon. 
benovip, congratulation, 
to beseech, bekon. 
beside, nebii. 
besides, pla. 
betikalam, enthusiasm, 
between, bevii. 
bevii, between, among, 
beviinetik, international. 
Bib, 
Bible. 

bid, kind, sort 
biedik, bitter. 



bien, bee. 

bifu, before (in place). 

bigik, thick. 

bijop, bishop. 

bijut, jewel. 

bil, beer. 

bill of exchange, 
canapened. 

bim, tree. 

binon, to be. 

bird, bod. 

biseo, beforehand. 

bishop, bijop. 

bisiedal, president (of 
Republic). 

bisiedel, president (of a 
Society). 

bisilab, prefix (fore- 
syllable). 

bit, process. 

bite, beit. 

bitterness, bied. 

bizug, advantage. 

-am, preference. 
-on, to prefer. 

black, blagik. 
( blam, -on, 
( blame. 

bla- (prefix), black-. 

blagik, black. 

ble- (prefix), short-. 

bled, leaf (of tree or paper). 

blefik, short, brief. 

blegon, to bend. 

bleinik, blind. 



blekon. 



bun 



blekon, to break, 
bletimo, a short time ago. 
blibon, to remain, 
blig, duty. 

-ik, obligatory. 
blim, equipment, 
blind, bleinik. 
blincn, to bring. 

blod, brother. 

-at, fraternity. 

-ik, fraternal. 
blonik, brown, 
blood, blud. 
blof, proof. 
blot, breast. 
blud, blood, 
blue, yulibik. 
bluf, test 
bliif, trial. 

blunon, to deliver, supply. 
bo, doubtless. 
boad, wood, 
boat, bot. 
bob, bow, arch. 
bod, bread, 
bodily, kopik. 
body, kop. 
bonk, both. 
bog, box. 
bolit, politics. 

-el, politician. 
bom, bone, 
bond, fetan. 
bone, bom. 



boned, order, subscription. 
-on, to order, sub- 
scribe. 

book, buk. 

boot, but. 

bos, something. 

bot, boat. 

both, bofik. 

bottle, flad. 

bov, dish. 

box, bog. 

boy, pul. 

bod, bird. 

bolad, burden. 

boset, noise. 

botel, waiter. 

bravo ! bafb ! 

bread, bod. 

to break, blekon. 

breast, blot. 

bridge, pon. 

brief, blefik. 

brilliance, nid (-ik). 

brilliancy, klat. 

to bring, blinon. 
( brokel, 
{ broker. 

brother, blod. 

brown, blonik. 

bufu, before (in precedence) 

to build, bumon. 

buk, book. 

bumon, to build. 

bun, leap. 

-on, to leap. 



bundan 



72 



chemistry 



bundan, abundance. 

burden, bolad. 

bureau, bur. 

to burn, filedon. 

business, jaf. 

but, ab, sod. 

but, boot. 

butter, mileg. 

button, gnob. 

bud, command, order, -on. 

bufii, before (in time). 

biik, impression. 

-on, to print. 

-el, printer. 
bur, bureau, office, 
by, a, bei, fa, dub. 
by means of, dub. 

cal, office (function). 
-el, an official, func- 
tionary. 

-Ik, Official (adjectiv). 

calculation, kalam. 
calendar, kaled. 
to call, vokon. 
to call back, gevokon. 
can, merchandise. 
I can, kanob. 
Canada, Kanadan. 
candor, kaniid. 
capable, fagik. 
capital, katad. 
captain, katan. 
card, kad. 
care, kal, kud. 
carriage, vab. 



to carry, polon. 

case, fal. 

cash, kad. 

castle, kased. 

cat, kat. 

to catch, fanon. 

Catholic, katolik. 

cause, kod. 

cad, distinction, eminence. 

cal, employment, situation. 

-am, appointment, inau- 
guration into office, 
can, exchange (of money). 

-apened, bill of 

exchange. 

cedon, to consider, deem. 
cek, check (draft), 
cellar, kav. 
cem, room. 

cen, change, variation, on, 
cent, sentab. 
central, zenodik. 
centre, zenod. 
century, yeltum. 
chair, stul. 

champagne, jamanavin. 
change, cen. 
to change, cenon. 
chance, fad. 
character, kalad. 
cheap, nedelidik. 
cheese, fbmad. 
check, cek, 
chemist, kiemavel. 
chemistry, kiemav. 



cherished 



73 



consideration 



cherished, divik. 

chess, cog. 

chestnut, katan. 

chief, cif. 

child, cil. 

China, Cinan. 

chivalry, montial. 

Christian, krit, kritik. 

church, gliig. 

cif, chief, director. 

cigar, zigad. 

cil, child. 

cin, machine. 

Cinan, China. 

ciniifad, mechanism. 

cipher, ziif. 

circuit, ziim. 

cit, deception, -on. 

civilization, kuliv. 

class, klad. 

clerk, konodel. 

climate, kliim. 

clock, glok. 

to close, joton. 

cloth, klof. 

clothes, klots. 

club, klub. 

coarse, globik. 

coat, gun. 

coffee, kaf. 

cog, joke. 

coin, kon. 

cold, kalod. 

to collect, konleton. 



collection, konlet. 
colony, kolun. 
color, kol. 
column, koliim. 
combat, komip. 
to come, komon. 
command, bud. 
commerce, ted. 
common, tugedik. 
company, kopanom. 
compassion, kelied. 
to compose, lauton. 
to compel, miiton. 
complaint, plon. 
complete, lefulnik. 
compliment, plim, on. 
complimentary, plimik. 

to concentrate, 

kezenodon. 
concerning, do. 
condition, stip. 
conduct, kodot. 
to confess, koefon. 
confession, koef. 
confidence, konfid. 
confusion, kofud. 
conflagration, filed, 
congratulation, benovip. 
Congress, kongef. 
connection, fetan. 
conscience, konsien. 
consequence, klud, sek. 
to consider, cedon. 
consideration, konsid. 



consolation 



74 



danger 



consolation, tlod. 
consul, konsal. 
to consume, kosumon. 
contented, kotenik. 
contentment, koten. 
contents, nin. 
continuation, fov. 
to continue, fovon. 
to convalesce, saunon. 
conversation, musam. 
to convince, suadon. 
cook, kukel. 
to cook, kukon. 
copper, koped. 
copy, samad, depenad. 
cordial, ladlik. 
corner, gul. 
corpse, fun. 
to correct, menodon. 
correction, menod, 

menodam. 
to correspond, spodon. 
correspondence, snod, 

spodam. 
costly, delidik. 
to count, numon. 
counting-room, konod. 
cotton, kotin. 
country, laned, Ian. 
courage, lanim. 
cousin, kosel. 
cover, teg, -on. 
cow, kun. 
coward, temipel. 



cod, justice. 

-el, judge. 

-on, to judge. 
cog, chess. 
cotif, responsibility, 
cradle, kled. 
to create, jafon. 
creation, jaf, jafam. 
credit, klodat. 
crime, klim. 
critic, kriitel. 
criticism, knit. 
crown, klon. 
cuk, ass. 
culture, kuliv. 
cun, fast, abstinence from 

food. 

cup, kop. 

a curiosity, makab. 
custom, kosom. 
to cut, koton. 
cun, chin. 

da, through (literally). 
dabal, singleness. 
daduk, education (-on), 
dagik, dark, obscure. 
dalogon, to perceive. 
dalon, to dare. 
DAM. 

damage, dam. 
damat, drama, 
dan, thanks. 

-on [eke], to thank. 

dance, daniid. 
danger, polig. 



danlid 



75 



desire 



daniid, dance, 
to dare, dalon. 
dark, dagik. 

QaS, that (conjunction). 

dat, that, in order that, 
date, dat, -on. 
datuv, invention, 
day, del. 
dal, permission. 

-on, to permit. 
dam, damage. 
dat, date, on. 
de, from, 
deaf, sud. 
dear, delidik, lofik. 
death, deil. 
deb, debt. 

-on, to owe. 

-ik, due. 
debt, deb. 
deceit, cit. 
to deceive, citon. 
December, batul 

(balsetelul). 
to decline, deklinon. 
decoration, dek. 
dedil, portion, department, 
deep, dibik. 
def, lack, deficiency, 
defect, dof. 
deficiency, def. 
definit, fumik. 
degol, departure. 
deil, death. 

-on, to die. 



dek, decoration. 

dekal, deduction. 

deklinon, to decline 
(grammatically). 

dekul = batul. 

del, day. 

delay, fezog. 

delagon, to depend. 

delicate, zadik. 

delidik, dear, costly. 

to deliver, bliinon. 

demag, portrait. 

demal, emblem. 
j deman, -on. 
( demand. 

dem[ii], on account of, 
by reason of. 

den, sword. 

deno, nevertheless, still. 

denu, again. 

depad, dispatch. 

departure, degol. 

depenad, copy, transcript. 

depenon, to copy, to 
transcribe. 

to depend, delagon. 

depth, dib. 

derivation, licin. 

desan, design (intention). 

to deserve, melidon. 

desid, desire, -on. 

design, desan, desin. 

desin, design (premedita- 
tion. 

desire, desid. 



despair 



7 6 



dokel 



despair, dev. 

destination, diseinam. 

det, right (hand). 
j detail, retail. 
{ detiil. 

Deut, Germany. 
-ik, German. 

dev, despair. 

devoted, divodik. 

devotion, divod. 

dib, depth. 
-ik, deep. 

dictionary, vodasbuk. 

to die, deilon. 

dif, difference. 
-ik, different. 

difference, dif. 

difficult, fikulik. 

difficulty, fikul. 

diffusion, pakam. 

dig, worthiness, -ik. 

dignity, dinit. 

dik, dictation. 

diked, quarrel. 

dil, part. 

dilek, administration. 
-el, director. 

din, thing, affair. 
-amaf, proportion. 

dinit, dignity. 
| diped, 
{ diploma. 

to direct one's self, liiodon. 

director, cif, dilekel. 

dis, beneath. 



discount, rabat, dekal. 

disease, malad. 

disein, intention, purpose. 

dish, bov. 

dishonor, nestim, -on. 

disislifbn, to slide down. 

disopen, signature. 

-on, to subscribe, 
dispatch, depad. 
distin, distinction (between 
things). 

-on, to distinguish, 
distinction, cad, distin. 
disturbance, tup (-on), 
div, treasure. 

-ik, cherished, esteemed. 
divod, devotion. 

-ik, devoted. 
dlan, shove, press, -on. 
died, fear, -on. 
dlefbn, to hit. 
dlemon, to tremble. 
dlen, tear. 

-on, to weep. 
dlim, dream, -on. 
dlin, drink, -on. 
do, though, 
to do, dunon. 
doab, dollar, $. 
dob, duplicity. 

-ik, false, 
doctor, dokel. 
doer, dunel. 
DOG. 
dokel, doctor. 



dol 



77 



educated 



dol, pain. 

dollar, doab. 

dom, house. 

donation, legiv. 

door, yan. 

dot, doubt, -on. 

dot, piinil. 

doubt, dot, -on. 

down, dis. 

do, of, about, concerning. 

dobik, wrong, incorrect. 

dodel = luliidel. 

dof, fault, defect 

dok, duck. 

dol, idea. 

draft, tlat. 

drama, dam at. 

to draw, zugon. 

dream, dlim, -on. 

drink, dlin, -on. 
j drol, 
( drollery. 

drop, tof. 

du, during, while. 

dub, through, by means of. 

dugon, to guide, direct. 

duin, efficiency, 

-on, to effect, perform 

duke, diik. 

dukiel, guide-book. 

dukon, to guide, lead. 

dul, duration. 
-ik, durable. 
-on, to last. 

dumb, muedik. 



dun, act. 

-on, to do, act. 

-el, doer. 
dut, industry, application. 

-ik, industrious, 
duplicity, dob. 
durable, dulik. 
duration, dul. 
during, du. 
dustod, industry. 

-ik, industrial, 
duty, blig. 
duzukon," to flash 

through. 
diifik, hard, 
diik, duke. 
dulin, steel. 
dun an, servant 
diinon, to serve. 
diip, hour. 
diiv, appraisal, 
to dwell, lodon. 
e, and. 
ear, lil. 
'earth, tal. 
ease, nefikul. 
east, lefud. 
easy, nenkulik. 
to eat, fidon. 
eb, ebo, just, exactly. 
edelo, day before yesterday, 
edition, segivam. 
editor, redakel. 
to educate, dadukon. 
educated, estudik. 



education 



fag 



education, dadukfam]. 

effeminate, luvomik. 

egelo, always. 

egg, nog. 

eight, jol. 

either, uf. 

ek, somebody, someone. 

eko ! behold ! 

ekusi ! see there ! 

to elect, valon, sevalon. 

electricity, lektin. 

elephant, nelfan. 

emblem, demal. 

emperor, limep. 

to employ, calon. 

employee, pecalel. 

empty, vagik. 

end, fin. 

endeavor, steif, -on. 

to endure, sufbn. 

England, Nelij (-el, -ik). 

to engrave, gavon. 

to enjoy, juiton. 

enough, satik. 

enthusiasm, betikalam. 

envelope, kov. 

equal, leigik. 

equality, leig. 

equipment, blim. 

equity, git. 

to erect, leblimon. 

to establish, stabon. 

esteem, stiim. 

esteemed, divik. 



estudik, educated. 
et, that (demonstrativ). 
eternity, tenal. 
Europe, Yulop. 
European, yulopik, 

yulopel. 
evelo, ever, 
even, sago. 
evening, vendel. 
ever, evelo. 
every, alik. 
every one, alim. 
examination, xam (-on), 
example, sam. 
except, sesumii. 
exception, sesum. 
exchange, can, tok, -on. 
to excuse, sekusadon. 
exercise, plag. 
to exist, sibinon. 
existence, sibin. 
expenditure, segiv. 
to explain, seplanon. 
explanation, seplan. 
eye, log. 

fa, by (agent). 
(fab, 
| fable. 

fabliid, manufactory. 

fact, jen. 

fad, thread. 

fag, remoteness. 
-ik, far, distant. 



fairy 79 



fairy, feof. 
faithful, fiedik. 
fal, fall, case. 

-on, to fall. 

-o, in case, 
fall, fal. 
to fall, falon. 
false, dobik. 
fam, 
fame. 

{family, 
famiil. 
fancy, fan. 
fanon, to catch, 
far, fagik. 
to fast, cunon. 
to fasten, yiimon. 
fat, father, 
fat, pin, pinik, pien, 

pienik. 
fate, fat. 

fatel, grandfather, 
father, fat. 
to fatigue, fenon. 
fault, dof, pok. 
favor, gon, -on. 
fad, chance, accident. 
fagik, capable. 
falo, further, any more. 
falon, to overturn, cause to 

fall. 

fan, fancy. 
fat, fate. 
fe, indeed, 
fear, died, -on. 



fifth 

feb, trade, profession. 

February, telul. 

febul=telul. 
(fed, 
| federation, league. 

to feel, senon. 

fefik, serious. 

fein, fineness, -ik. 

feit, fight, -on. 

fek, affection. 

fel, field. 

fellow-worker, kevobel. 

feminin, jilik. 

fenig, one-hundredth of a 
mark, pfennig. 

fenon, to weary, fatigue. 

feof, fairy. 

fertile, fetik. 

festival, zal. 

festun, wreath. 

fet, fertility. 

fetan, bond, connexion, 
-amal, hyphen. 

fever, fif. 

few, nemodik. 

fezog, delay. 

flam, firm-name. 

fib, weakness, -ik. 

fid, food. 
-on, to eat. 

fiedik, faithful. 

field, fel, feil. 

fien, interest (on money). 

fif, fever. 

fifth, lulid ; |, luldil. 



fikul 



80 



fol 



fikul, difficulty, -ik. 

fil, fire. 

filed, fire, conflagration, 
burning (of an house). 

fight, feit, -on. 

Fikop, Africa, -ik. 

filedon, to burn. 

to fill (an order), befulon. 

fimik, firm. 

fin, end. 
-ik, final. 

final, finik. 
j finan 
( finance. 

finap, toe. 

to find, tuvon. 

fine, feinik. 

fineness, fein. 
j fined, 
( finger. 

fire, fil, filed. 

firm, fimik, fiam. 

first, balid. 
(fish, 
(fit. 

five, lul. 

flad, bottle, 
j flam, -on, 
| flame. 

flan, side, page. 

flapon, to strike. 

to flash through, 
duzukon." 
j flattery, 
Iflat. 



to flee, fugon. 
flekon, to turn, 
flen, friend, -ik, -ly. 

-ug, friendship. 
Flent, France. 

-el, Frenchman. 

-ik, French. 

-apiik, French [lan- 
guage], 
flesh, mid. 

flidel = maliidel. 
flifik, fresh, 
flight, flit, 
flit, flight. 
-on, to fly. 
-ad, wing, 
flock, jep. 
flol, flower. 

-atim, spring [time]. 
(flon, 
{ florin. 

flotOn, tO freeze (transitiv). 

flour, meil. 
flower, flol. 
fluk, fruit. 

-atim, autumn. 
flul, floor. 
flum, river. 
flun, influence, -on. 
to fly, fliton. 
foetabs, savages. 
foetik, wild. 
fogin, foreign countr}: 
-el, foreigner. 

fok, fork. 
fol, four. 



foldil 

foldil, fourth, ^, quarter. 

to follow, sukon. 

fom, form, -on. 

fon, spring (of water). 

fonetig, phonetics. 

food, fid, zib. 

fool, fop. 

foot, fut. 

fop, fool. 

for, plo, pla, demii, du. 

force, nam. 

foreign, foginik. 

foreigner, foginel. 

forest, fot. 

to forget, fbgeton. 

to forgive, fbgivon. 

forgiveness, fogiv. 

fork, fok. 

form, fom, on. 

fortunate, labik. 

fot, forest, woods. 

four, fol. 

fourth, #, foldil. 

fov, continuation. 

-on, to continue. 

-ik, immediate. 

-iko, immediately, 
' ' right away. " 
fbd, furthering, advancing, 

-on. 

fbget, oblivion. 

-on, to forget, 
fbgiv, forgiveness (-on), 
fomad, cheese, 
fbn, stove. 



81 



fbsefon, to assure, 
j fran, 
I franc. 

France, Flent. 

fraternity, blodat. 

to freeze, floton. 

French, flentik. 

the French language, 
flentapiik. 

Frenchman, flentel. 

frequent, ofenik. 

fresh, flifik. 

friend, flen. 

friendly, flenik. 

friendship, fleniig. 

fright, tlep. 

to frighten, tlepon. 

FROG. 

from, de. 

frugal, spalik. 

fruit, fluk. 

fugon, flee, 
(full, 
I fulik. 

fun, corpse. 
-on, to kill. 

furniture, mobs. 

further, falo. 

fut, foot. 

future (adjectivj, fiidik. 

( future (noun), 

( fiiden. 

fiidik, future, coming. 
fumik, definit. 
ga, indeed. 



gad 

gad, garden. 

-el, gardener. 
galon, to watch. 
gan, goose, 
garden, gad. 
gardener, gadel. 
garment, klot. 
gas, gasin. 
gased, newspaper. 
gasin, gas. 
gav, engraving (the art). 

gal, joy. 

-od, pleasure. 

-onok, to rejoice. 
geb, use, -on. 
gedik, gray. 

geil, hight. 
-ik, high. 

gel, organ (musical). 

geliit, inheritance. 

gen, gender. 

genal, general (officer). 

gender, gen. 

general, valemik, genal. 

generous, givik. 
j genial, a man of 
{ genius. 

gentle, molik. 

gepiik, reply, -on. 

German, deutik, deutel. 

Germany, Deut. 

gesag, answer, -on. 

gesture, vineg. 

get, reception. 
-on, to receive. 



82 glow 



getapenad, receipt, 

voucher. 

gevokon, to call back. 
git, right, equity, 
gift, giv. 
giv, gift. 

-ik, generous. 

-on [bosi eke], to give, 
to give, giv on [bosi eke]. 
glad, ice. 
glamat, grammar, 
glass, glat, glatik. 
glatik, gratuitous, 
glat^glass. 

-ik, [made of] glass. 
gle- (prefix), great. 
gleinon, to grind. 
gleip, grasp, -on. 
glen, grain. 
glet, greatness. 

-ik, great. 
glezif, capital city. 
glid, greeting. 

-on, to greet, to salute. 
glif, grief, 
to glitter, nidon. 
globe, glop. 
globik, coarse, 
glof, vegetable substance. 

-on, to grow. 

glok, clock, or watch, time- 
piece. 

glol, glory, 
gloom, glum, 
glory, glol. 
glow, glut. 



glok 

glok, bell, 
glop, globe. 
glum, gloom. 
glun, ground. 
glup, group. 
glut, glow, -on. 
gliig, church. 
gliinik, green, 
gnob, button, 
to go, golon. 
to go out, segolon. 
GOD. 

gold, goliid. 
golden, goliidik. 
golon, to go. 
goliid, gold. 
gonon, to run. 
good, gudik. 
good fortune, lab. 
goodness, gud. 
goose, gan. 
GOSPEL. 
gov, government. 

-on, to govern, 
to govern, govon. 
government, gov. 
go, even, 
godel, morning, 
gon, favor, -on. 
grace, ben, venud. 
grade, slep. 
gradual, pianik. 
grain, glen, 
grammar, glamat. 



83 half 

grandfather, fatel. 

grasp, gleip, -on. 

grass, yeb. 

gratuitous, glatik. 

gray, gedik. 

great, gletik. 

greatness, glet. 

green, gliinik. 

to greet, glidon. 

greeting, glid. 

grief, glif. 

to grind, gleinon, 

ground, glun. 

group, glup. 

to grow, giofon. 

guarantee, spon. 

gud, goodness. 
-ik, good. 

to guess, raton. 

guest, lot. 

gug, throat. 

guide, dukel. 

to guide, dugon, dukon. 

guitar, ziit. 

gun, coat. 

gun, gun. 

gustul=jolul. 

gut, taste. 

giimnad, gymnasium, col- 
lege. 

gun, gun. 

gymnasium (college), 
giimnad. 

hair, hel. 

half, laf, teldil. 



nand 



84 



to hunt 



hand, nam. 

handkerchief, nudod. 

to hang, lagon, lagon. 

hap, harp. 

happiness, beat, lab. 

happy, beatik* 

hard, diifik. 

harp, hap. 

haste, spid. 

to hasten, spidon. 

hat, hat. 

hate, het. 

to hate, heton. 

haughty, pleidik. 

to have, labon. 

hat, hat. 

he, om. 

health, saun. 

healthful, saunlik. 

healthy, saunik. 

head, kap. 

heap, kum. 

to hear, lilon. 

heart, lad. 

heat, hit. 

heaven, sil, siil. 

hel, hair. 

help, yuf, -on. 

here, is. 

hero, jamep. 

herself, of it. 

to hesitate, zogon. 

het, hate, -on. 

to hide, savon. 



high, geilik. 
hight, geil. 
himself, om it. 

hit, heat. 

-ik, hot. 
to hit, dlefon. 
hitherto, jiinu. 
hog, hole, 
hog, svin. 
to hold, kipon. 
hole, hog. 
Holland, Nedan. 
home, lorn, 
hon, horn, 
honor, lestim. 
honor, stim, -on. 
hook, nug. 
hope, spel, -on. 
horn, hon. 
horse, jeval. 
hospitality, lotad. 
host, lotel. 
hot, hitik. 
hotel, loted. 
hour, diip. 
house, dom. 
how ? liko ? Ho- ? 
huit, oyster. 
huk, handle, 
human, nienik. 
humanity, menad. 
hundred, turn. 
hunger, potiit. 
to hunt, yagon. 



husband 



jilik 



husband, matel. 

hyphen, fetanamal. 

i, also (id). 

I, ob. 

ibo, for (because). 

ice, glad. 

idea, dol. 

IF. 

ill, maladik. 

illness, malad. 

image, mag. 

immediate, fovik. 

immediately, foviko. 

immortality, nedeilof. 

impression, biik. 

IN. 

is, here. 

inclination, klien. 

inclination, slop. 

to incline, slopon. 

inconceivable, nesuemik. 

indeed, vo. 

Indian, nidian. 

influence, flun. 

industrial, dustodik. 

industrious, dutik. 

industry, dut, dustod. 

to inform, niinon. 

to inherit, geluton. 

iniquity, negit. 

instead, pla. 

institution, stit. 

instruction, tid, -am. 

instrument, stum. 



intellect, kapal. 
interest, nited, fieri, 
international, beviinetik. 
interruption, rop (-on). 
invention, datuv. 
iron, lei. 
island, nisul. 
it, -self, 
it, om, os. 
Italian, talel, talik. 
Italy, Tal. 
jad, shadow. 
jaf, creation. 

-on, to create. 
jal, shell. 
jalep, severity, 
jamanavin, champagne. 
jamep, hero. 
January, balul. 
jap, sharpness. 

-ik, sharp. 
jaf, business. 
jedon, to throw. 
jek, terror. 

jel, shelter, protection, -on, 
jem, shame. 

-on, to be ashamed. 
jemad, scheme, plan. 
jep, flock. 
jen, fact. 
jeval. horse. 
Jew, yudel. 
jewel, bijut. 
Jewish, yudik. 
jilik, feminin. 



jim 

jim, scissors, shears. 
jin, appearance. 

-on, to appear. 
jip, sheep, 
jireg, queen. 
jitidel [female] teacher. 

jok, thrust. 

-on, to thrust, 
joke, cog. 
jol, shore. 

jonon, to show, point. 
jonels, hands of a 

watch. 

journey, tav. 
joy, gal, yof. 
jol, eight. 
jonik, beautiful. 
joton, to close, conclude, 
judge, code). 
to judge, codon. 
jueg, sugar. 
juit, enjoyment. 
juk, shoe. 

jul, school. 

-el, scholar. 
July, velul. 
June, malul. 
just, eb. 
justice, cod. 
juton, to shoot. 

jii, till. 

jiif, cipher, cryptogram. 
jiinu, till now, hitherto. 
ka, than. 



86 ked 



kad, card. 

kadem, academy. 

-al, academician. 

kaf, coffee. 

kal, account. 
-av, arithmetic. 
-on, to calculate. 

kalad, character. 

kaled, calendar. 

kalod, cold. 

kan, art. 

Kanadan, Canada. 

kanit, song. 

-on, to sing. 

kanob, I can, I am 
able. 

kanon, to be able. 

kap, head. 

-al, intellect. 
-alon, to understand. 

kased, castle. 

kat, cat. 

katad. capital (investment). 

katan, captain. 

katolik, catholic. 

kauto ! look out ! be care- 
ful. 

kav, cellar. 

kazet, accent. 

kad, cash, -on. 

kal, care. 

kan em, artillery. 

kaniid, candor. 

katan, chestnut. 

ked, row, rank. 



keep 

to keep, bekipon. 

kel, who, which. 

kelied, compassion. 

keolon, to address a person 
by the pronoun ol (in- 
stead of the ceremonial 
form ons formerly used). 

ket, chain. 

kevobel, fellow-worker. 

key, kik. 

kezenodon, to concen- 
trate. 

kid, kiss, -on. 

kiemav, chemistry. 
-el, chemist. 

kif ? who ? (feminin). 

kik, key. 

-on, to shut. 

kiss, kid. 
kikod ? why ? 
kil, three. 
kildil, third, ft. 
to kill, funon. 
kim ? who ? 

-id ? what, in numeri- 
cal order ? 
-ik ? what kind of? 
kimfal, kimafal, kimefal, 

kimifal, names of the 

cases. 

kin, boldness. 
kinan, kingdom or empire, 

realm, 
kind, bid. 
king, reg. 
kiom ? which ? which one ? 



87 ko 

kiop ? where ? 
kiplad ? where ? 

-i ? whither ? 
kipon, to hold, 
kis ? what ? 
kitchen, kuk. 
kiiip ? when ? 
klad, class. 

klat, brilliancy, distinction, 
-ik. 

klan, secret. 
kled, cradle, 
klig, war. 
kill, clear. 
klim, crime. 
klin, cleanness. 
klon, crown, 
klop, crop. 
klot, garment. 
Mod, belief. 

-on, to believe. 

-at, credit. 
klof, cloth. 
klub, society, club, 
klud, consequence, conclu 

sion. 

kluf, nail, 
kliim, climate, 
knife, neif. 
knight, montiel. 
knot, snob, 
to know, nolon. 
to know, sevon. 
knowledge, nol. 
ko, with. 



kod 



lad 



kod, cause. 

kodem, condemnation. 
kodot, conduct. 
koef, confession, -on. 
kof, ridicule. 
kofud, confusion. 
kolun, colony. 
koliim, column. 
komed, recommendation. 

-on, to recommend. 
komip, combat. 
komit, order, commission. 
komplig, complication. 
kon, story, tale. 
konfid, confidence. 
konlet, collection, -on. 
konod, counting-room. 

-el, clerk. 
konsal, consul. 
konsal, advice. 
konsefbn, to preserve. 
konsid, consideration. 
konsien, conscience. 
konzed, concert. 
kop, body. 

-ik, bodily. 

kopan, act of accompany- 
ing. 

-al, companion, 
member. 

-el, partner. 

-6m, company (mer- 
cantile). 
koped, copper. 
kosiad, combination. 
koston, to cost. 



koten, contentment, -ik. 
kotin, cotton. 
ko, where. 
kod, sculpture. 
koduton, to hire. 
kodiiton, to let for hire. 
kol, color. 
komon, to come, 
kon, coin. 
kop, cup. 
kosom, custom. 
kosel, cousin. 
kosumon, to consume. 
koton, to cut. 
kov, envelope. 
krit, [a] Christian. 
kriit, criticism. 

-el, critic. 
kud, care (of the sick), -on, 

-ik. 
kuk, kitchen. 

-el, cook. 

-on, to cook, 
kulad, precision. 
kuliv, civilization, culture. 
kum, heap. 
kun, cow. 
kusad, accusation. 
kii, when. 
kii- (prefix), cubic, 
kiib, cube, 
labedon, to possess. 
labon, to have. 
lad, heart. 

-lik, cordial. 



ladet 

ladet, address (of letter), 

-on. 

ladyek, adjectiv. 
lack, def. 
lady, lad. 
laf, half, 
lafab, alphabet. 
lafik, half. 

Iag6n, tO hang (intransitiv). 

lain, wool, 
flak, 
| lake. 

lakif, share of stock, bond. 

laltiig, article (in period- 
ical). 

lam, arm. 
lamb, liam. 
Ian, soul, 
land, Ian. 
laned, country (not town). 

-ik, rural, 
lanel, angel, 
language, piik. 
lanim, courage. 

lapin, robbery. 

-on, to rob. 

lasam, Assembly, Conven- 
tion, Congress, 
last, latik. 
to last, dulon. 
lasum, reception. 

-on, to receive (a per- 
son). 

latik, late, tardy, 
laugh, smil. 



lefud 

late, latik. 
laundry, viotop. 
laut, authorship. 

-el, author. 

-on, to compose. 
lavogel, advocate, attorney, 
law, Ion. 
lawyer, lavogel. 
to lay, seiton. 
lazy, nedutik. 

lab, happiness, good for- 
tune, 
-ik, fortunate. 

lad, lady. 

lagon, to hang [anything]. 

Ian, land (not water), coun- 
try (one's own). 

lasev, approval. 

latik, last. 

leaf, bled. 

leak, voad. 

leap, bun, -on. 

to learn, lenadon. 

leather, skit. 

to leave, liivon. 

lebijop, archbishop. 

leblimon, to establish, 
erect. 

lebob, bank. 

ledik, red. 

left, nedet. 

leful, perfection, 
-ik, perfect. 
-nik, complete. 

lefud, east. 



leg 



90 



liladon 



leg, authenticity. 
legiv, present, gift. 
legudik, very good. 
leig, equality. 
-ik, equal, 
leil, mile. 

leit, lightness (not heavy), 
-ik. 

lektin, electricity. 
lei, iron. 

-od, railroad. 
lelit, lightning. 
lem, [a] purchase. 

-on, to buy. 

-acem, store, shop, 
leman, remainder. 
lemuf, shake. 
len, at. 
lenad, learning. 

-on, to learn, 
length, loned. 
leno, not at all, no indeed. 
lenpiik, address (speech). 

leod, order, arrangement. 

-ik, orderly. 
lep, ape. 

leplekon, to worship, 
lesevam, recognition. 
lesi, yes certainly. 
leson, prince, 
lesson, tidiip. 
lestim, honor. 
leton, to let. 
letter, tonab, pened. 
leiil, oil. 



levemo, very much indeed. 

lezif, city. 

li ? indicates a question. 

liab, linen. 

liam, lamb. 

lian, line (of poetry), verse. 

liat, litre. 

lib, liberty, freedom. 

-ik, free, 
liberty, lib. 
licin, derivation, 
to lie, seiston. 
lieb, vine. 
lied, pain, 
lieg, riches, wealth. 

-ik, rich, wealthy. 
lielon, to listen. 
lien, line (from one point to 

another). 

lieutenant, liotan. 
liev, hare. 
lif, life. 

-ik, alive. 

-on, to live, 
life, lif. 
to lift, tovon. 
lig, liquor. 

light (noun), Ht. 

light (not heavy), leitik. 
lightning, lelit. 
liko? how? 
likof, quality. 
HI, ear. 

-on, to hear. 
liladon, to read. 



limep 



lomib 



flim, 

( limb, member. 

limep, emperor. 

lin, ring. 

line, lien. 

lined, interior. 

lineg, tongue. 

linen, liab. 

linkip = lotel. 

lio- ? how ? 

liotan, lieutenant. 

LIP. 

liquor, lig. 

lisal, reason. 
j lised, 
{list. 

to listen, lielon. 

lit, light (illumination). 
( literat, 
( literature. 

litre, Hat. 

to live, lifbn. 

livik, loose. 

living, lifik. 

lo, in front of. 

load, lod. 

lob, praise, -on. 

lobed, obedience (-on), 

locality, top. 

lod, load. 

loeg, observation (-on). 

lof, offer, -on. 

log, eye. 

-on, to see. 

logic, tikav. 



lok, mirror. 

lol, rose. 

lorn, home (native country). 

Ion, law. 

loned, length. 

-ik, long. 
long, lonedik. 
look out ! kauto ! 
loose, livik. 
lop, opera, 
lord, solal. 
loss, poliid. 
lot, guest. 

-ad, hospitality. 

-el, host, entertainer. 

-adon, to receive hospit- 
ably. 

-ed, hotel. 

lotogaf, orthography. 
love-, over-, 
love, lof, -on. 
lovegivon, to hand over, 

to present, 
lovely, loflik. 
lovepolon, to translate. 
( lovik, 

( low, inaudible, 
low, bapik. 
lodon, to live, dwell. 
lof, love. 

-on, to love. 

-ik, dear. 

-lik, lovely, 
log, leg. 
lolik, whole. 
lomib, rain. 



lonik 



92 



masculin 



lonik, own proper. 

lonon [eke], to belong. 

lonef, property, peculiarity. 

lonug, idiom. 

lop, top. 

Lostakin, Austria. 

lubegel, beggar. 

lufat, step-father. 

lugiv, loan. 

luib, wheel. 

lul, five. 

lulak, swamp. 

luldil, fifth, f 

lusanel, quack-doctor. 

Lusan, Russia. 

-el, Russian. 
lusolel, tyrant. 
lut, air. 
luumo, less. 
luiino, least. 
luvelat, probability. 
luvomik, effeminate, 
liidik, rough. 
liiedik, raw. 
liien, degree. 
liiod, direction (towards). 
liivon, to quit, leave, aban- 
don. 

liixam, luxury. 
ma, in conformity with, 
mab, marble, 
machine, cin. 
mad, ripeness. 
Madam, vom. 



maeg, illustration. 

maf, measure. 

-od, moderation, 
mag, image, representa- 
tion. 
j magif, 
( magnificence, 
to mail, poton. 
majesty, mayed. 
mak, mark (German 

money). 

makab, curiosity, wonder- 
ful thing. 
-ik, remarkable, 
to make, mekon. 
malad, sickness, illness. 

-ik, sick, ill. 
male, manik. 
malit, market. 
man, man (not woman), 
-ik, male, masculin. 
-lik, manly, 
man, man, men. 
manif, openness. 
-on, to open. 
-of, publicity, 
manly, manlik. 
manufactory, fabliid. 
many, modik. 
marble, mab. 
March, kilul. 
mark (money), mak. 
market, malit. 
marriage, mat. 
to marry, maton. 
masculin, manik. 



masel 

j masel, 
| master. 

mat, marriage. 
-el, husband. 
-on, to marry. 
-adit, divorce. 
( material, 
{ materik. 

matter, stof. 

May, lulul. 

mayed, majesty. 

mayul = luluL 

mak, stamp, mark. 

makab, celebrity, -ik. 

mal, six. 

maliidel, Friday. 

mazul = kilul. 

me, with, by means of. 

means, med. 

measure, maf. 

meat, mit. 

meb, recollection. 

med, means. 
j medicin, 
{ medin. 
j medit, 
( meditation. 

meil, flour. 

mekon, to make. 

mel, sea. 

melak, traffic. 

melid, merit. 

-on, to deserve. 
( melod, 
( melody. 

Melop, America. 



93 mm 



mem, memory. 

-on, to remember, 
memory, mem, meb. 
men, man (human being). 
-ad, humanity. 
-ik, human. 

menod, correction, -on. 
merchandise, can. 
merchant, tedel. 
mercy, misal. 
merit, melid, -on. 
mesed, reward, -on. 
met, metre (39 inches). 
METAL. 
metre, met. 
mid, flesh, 
mid-day, zendel. 
middle, zenod. 
mied, boundary. 
miegik, meek. 
miel, honey, 
mig, mixture, 
migration, tev. 
mil, thousand. 
milag, wonder. 
mileg, butter, 
milig, milk. 
milit, army. 

-al, military spirit 

-ik, military, 
military, militik. 
milk, milig. 
mill, mill, 
min, mineral. 

-av, mineralogy. 



mind 



94 



mtiton 



mind, tikal. 

mineral, min. 
j minut, 
( minute. 

miot, dirt, 
mirror, lok. 
misalad, mercy, 
miser, monalan. 
mistake, pok. 
Mister, Sol. 
mit, meat, 
to mix, migon. 

mob, proposal. 

-on, to propose. 
rnobin, absence. 
(mod, 
( mode. 

mofii, outside of. 
mol, gentleness. 
molad, fashion. 
mon, money. 
-al, avarice. 
-alan, miser, 
j monarchy, 
{ monak. 
monedon, to warn, 

admonish, 
money, mon. 

moniton, to ride on horse- 
back. 

month, mul. 
montial, chivalry. 
montiel, knight, chevalier, 
moon, mun. 
morning, godel. 



mostep, progress, -on. 

mot, mother. 

-apiik, mother-tongue. 

mother, mot. 

mountain, bel. 

mouse, mug. 

mouth, mud. 

movement, muf. 

mob, piece of furniture. 

mod, quantity, multitude. 
-ik, many, much. 
-umik, several. 

mogik, possible. 

molod, murder. 

mon, wall. 

mud, mouth. 

muedik, mute, dumb. 

muf, movement. 
-on, to move. 

mug, mouse. 

mul, month. 

multitude, mod. 

mun, moon. 

mundel = teliidel. 

murmur, mur. 

musam, conversation. 
( music, 
{ musig. 

mute, muedik. 

muton, to be compelled. 

mutob, I must. 

muedik, soft. 

mill, mill. 

miir, murmur, -on. 

miiton, to compel. 



myself 



95 



nevertheless 



myself, ob it. 

na, after (conjunction, not preposi- 
tion). 

nab, narrowness. 

nad, needle, pin. 

naf, ship. 

nag, same as na (before a 

vowel), 
nail, kluf. 
nam, hand, 
name, nem, -on. 
narrow, nabik. 
nat, nature. 

-ik, natural, 
nation, net. 
national, netik. 
natural, natik. 
nature, nat. 
nagon, to sew. 
nam, force, energy, 
near, nilik, nilii. 
nearness, nil. 
nebin, non-existence. 
nebii, beside, 
necessity, zesiid. 
neck, nokeb. 
ned, need, -on. 
nedanik, ungrateful. 
Nedan, Holland. 
nedeilof, immortality. 
nedelidik, cheap, 
nedet, left [hand], 
nedut, laziness, 
need, ned, -on. 
needle, nab. 



nef, nephew. 

nefikul, ease, facility. 

-ik, easy. 
neflen, enemy, 
negit, wrong. 

-ik, wrongful, iniquit- 
ous. 

to neglect, zogon. 
neif, knife. 
neit, night, 
neither, ni. 
nek, nobody. 
nelab, privation, 
nelfan, elephant. 
Nelij, England. 

-el, Englishman. 

-ik, English. 

-apiik, English lan- 
guage. 

nem, name, -on. 
nemodik, few, not much, 
nen, without, 
nepematel, bachelor, sin- 
gle man. 
nephew, nef. 
nepiik, silence, 
nerve, nev. 

nCS, without (before infinitiv). 

nestimon, to contemn. 

nesuemik, inconceivable. 

net, nation. 

-ik, national. 
j neudik, 
{ neuter. 

nev, nerve. 

nevertheless, deno. 



nevilon 



nud 



nevilon, to refuse, 
new, nulik. 
news, nun. 
newspaper, gased. 
ni, neither, nor. 
nid, brilliance. 

-ik, brilliant. 

-on, to glitter. 
Nidian, Indian. 

nif, snow, -on. 

-atim, winter. 
nig, ink. 
night, neit. 
nil, nearness, -ik. 
niludam, opinion, mean- 
ing. 

nilii, near (preposition). 
nim, animal. 
nin, contents, 
nine, ziil. 
nisul, island. 
nited, interest. 

-ik, interesting. 
niver, university. 
no, not, no. 
no, no, nonik. 
nob, nobility. 

-ik, noble. 

-aston, precious stone, 
nobility, nob. 
noble, nobik, baonik. 
nobody, nek. 
noel, witness. 

-on, to testify. 
noeton, to note. 



nog, yet, as yet. 
nogan, organ, 
noise, boset. 

nol, science, knowledge. 
-on, to know. 
-ik, scientific. 
' noliid, north. 

nom, rule. 

none, nonik. 

non-existence, nesibin, 
nebin. 

nonik, none, no (adjectiv). 

noon, zendel. 

nor, ni. 

north, noliid. 

nos, nothing. 
-on, to annul. 

nose, nud. 

not, no. 
(not, 
( notice. 

to notify, noton. 

nothing, nos. 

noun, subsat. 

nourishment, nuliid. 

novelty, nul. 

November, babul 
(balsebalul). 

novul = babul. 

nog, egg. 

nok, uncle. 

nokeb, neck. 

nud, nose. 

-od, handkerchief. 



nul 



97 



nul, novelty. 

-ik, new. 
nuliid, nourishment (-on). 
num, number (how many). 

-on, to count, 
number, num, -on, niim, 

-on. 
nun, news. 

-od, report. 
-on, to announce, 
niim, number (No.) 
nun, information. 
O ! oh ! (sign of address). 
oath, yul. 
ob, I. 

to obey, lobedon. 
obligatory, bligik. 
oblivion, fbget. 
observation, loeg. 
occasion, pot. 
October, balsul. 
odelo, to-morrow, 
of, do, de. 
of, she. 

offer, lof, -on. 
ofen, often. 

-ik> frequent. 
ok, one's self. 
ol, you (thou). 
office, cal. 
official >oun calel ; 

(adjectiv) Callk. 

often, ofen. 
oil, leiil. 
old, baledik. 



own 

old age, baled, 
old man, baledan. 

om, he, it. 

on, one, people. 

on, su. 

on account of, dem[ii]. 

once, balna, vono. 

one, bal, on. 

oned, under (in rank). 

only, te, lebalik. 

open, manifik. 

opera, lop. 

opinion, niludam. 

opportunity, pot. 

or, u, ud. 

order, boned, bud, leod. 

to order, bonedon, 

biidon. 

organ, gel, nogan. 
origin, rig. 
original, rigik. 
orthography, lotogaf. 
os, it (not referring to any 

noun), 
ot, same, 
other, votik. 
otul = balsul. 
otiipo, at the same time, 
ought, sot [on]. 
ourselves, obs it. 
out of, se. 

outside of, plo, mofu. 
to owe, debon. 
own, lonik. 



oyster 

oyster, huit. 

pab, butterfly. 

paf, peacock. 

pag, village. 

page, flan. 

pain, lied, dol. 

painting, pan. 

pair, pal. 

pakam, diffusion (of 
knowledge). 

pal, pair. 

palet, party (faction). 

panon, to pawn. 

paper, pop. 

part, dil. 

particular, patik. 

partisan, ziipel. 

party (sect), palet. 

patience, sufad. 

pap, pope. 

patik, special, particular. 

patiip, patiip, petiip, 
pitiip, potiip, putiip, 
names of tenses, 
j paud, 
| pause. 

to pawn, panon. 

to pay, pelon. * 

padel, curate, pastor. 

pak, package. 

pan, painting. 

pat, patent. 

peace, pud. 

peacock, paf. 



place 

peb, pulse. 
Pebaltats, the United 

States. 

pecalel, employee. 
ped, press. 
pejin, pigeon, dove. 
pelon, to pay. 

PEN. 

-on, to write. 

-ed, letter, epistle. 

-ad, writing, written- 

matter. 

people, pop, on. 
to perceive, dalogon. 
perfect, lefulnik. 
perfection, leful. 
perhaps, ba. 
permission, dal. 
to permit, dalon. 
person, posod. 
to persuade, suadon. 
pesevik, well-known, 
phonetics, fonetig. 
physician, sanel. 
pianik, gradual. 
pidon, to regret. 
pien, -ik, fat. 
pigeon, pejin. 
pin, fat, -ik. 
pin, nad. 

{Pip, 

( P^e. 

pla, instead, 
place, plad, top. 



plad 99 

plad, place (in which to put 

something). 
plag, practice. 
plak, experience, -on. 
( plan, 
( plant. 
plat, plane, 
plaud, plow, 
play, pled, -on. 
pla, besides. 
plag, exercise, 
plan, explanation, 
to please, plidon [eke]. 
pleasure, galod. 
pled, play. 

-on, to play, 
pleid, haughtiness. 
pleit, vanity, 
pick, prayer. 

-on, to pray, 
plepalon, to prepare, 
plidon [eke], to please, 
plidik, agreeable, 
plim, compliment. 

-ik, complimentary. 

-on, to compliment. 
plin, prince, 
plisen, presence, 
plisip, principle. 
plivad, privacy. 
plo, for. 

plofed, professor, 
plon, complaint. 
plotet, protest, 
plovin, province. 



plow, plaud. 

ployeg, project. 

plo, outside of. 

plopon, to succeed (but the 
thing "succeeds" to the 
person, bos plopos 
eke). 

plu, more. 

plum, lead. 

pliit, politeness. 

-ik, polite. 
po, after, behind, 
pocket, pok. 
poed, poetry. 
-at, poem. 
-el, poet, 
poem, poedat. 
poet, poedel. 
poison, venod. 
poetry, poed. 
point, pun. 
pok, pocket, 
pokaglok, watch. 
polen, police, 
politeness, pliit (-ik). 
politics, bolit. 
politician, bolitel. 
polon^ to carry, wear, 
pon, bridge, 
poor, pofik. 
pop, people, 
pope, pap. 
portion, dedil. 
portrait, demag. 
pos, after (in time). 



possess 

to possess, labedon. 
possible, mogik. 
postal, potik. 
post office, pot. 
pot, post (-office). 

-on, to post, mail, 
potato, potet. 
pound (20 shillings), steab. 
pound (weight), paun. 
power, valiid. 

pof, poverty. 

-ik, poor. 
pofudik, useful. 
pok, fault, mistake. 
polig, danger. 
polivegam, agoing astray. 
poliid, loss. 

-on, to lose. 
pomet, promise. 
pon, punishment. 
ponit, repentance. 
pop, paper. 
posod, person. 
pot, occasion, opportunity. 

-ik, appropriate. 

-ii, on the occasion of. 
potet, potato. 
potit, appetite. 
potiit, hunger. 
pozet, lawsuit, 
practice, plag. 
praise, lob, -on. 
to pray, plekb'n. 
prayer, pick, 
pram, prize. 



100 protest 

to preach, predon. 
precise, kuladik. 
precision, kulad. 

pred, sermon. 

-on, to preach, 
to prefer, bizugon. 
preference, bizugam. 
prefix, bisilab. 
to prepare, plepalon. 
present (gift), legi-v. 
president, bisiedal, 

bisiedel. 
press, ped. 
pretense, simul. 
to prevent, viaton. 
pride, pleid. 
prince, leson, regason. 
principle, plisip. 
to print, biikon. 
printer, biikel. 
private, plivadik. 
privation, nelab. 
prize, pram. 
probable, luvelatik. 
process, bit. 
professor, plofed. 
progress, mostep, -on. 
project, ployeg. 
promise, pomet, -on. 
proof, blof. 
proposal, mob. 
to propose, mobon. 
to protect, jelon. 
protest, plotet, -on. 



protestan 



101 



rent 



j protestan, 
{ protestant. 

province, plovin. 

prudent, visedik. 

to publish, piibon. 

publiig, public. 

pubon, to appear, as a 
new publication. 

pug, battle. 

pul, boy. 

pun, fist. 

to punish, ponon. 

purchase, lem, on. 

piiblig, republic. 

piibon, to publish. 

pud, peace. 

piik, language. 
-on, to speak. 

(For derivativs, see page 4.7.) 

piin, point, 
-il, dot. 

quack, lusanel. 
quality, likof. 
quantity, mod. 
quarrel, dikod, feit. 
queen, jireg. 
question, sak. 
quick, vifik. 
quickness, vif. 
rabat, discount, 
radical, vulik. 
rage, zun. 
railroad, lelod. 
rain, lomib, -on. 
rarity, seled. 



raw, liiedik. 

rat, riddle. 

-on, to guess, 
to read, liladon. 
reason, lisal. 
receipt, getapenad. 
to receive, geton. 
reception, get, lasum. 
reciprocal, rezipik. 
recognition, lesevam. 
recollection, meb. 
to recommend, komedon. 
recommendation, komed. 
red, ledik. 
redakon, to edit, 
to refuse, nevilon. 
reg, king. 

-al, ruler. 

-on, to reign. 
to regret, pidon. 
to rejoice, galonok. 
rel, religion, 
relating to, tefii. 
relation, tef. 
relativ, tefamik. 
religion, rel. 
remainder, leman. 
remarkable, makabik. 
to remember, memon. 
remoteness, fag. 
to remain, blibon. 
to rent from any one, 

koduton. 
to rent to any one, 

fokoduton (koduton), 



repent 



102 



saunon 



to repent, poniton. 

reply, gepiik, gesag. 

to reply, gepiikon, 
gesagon. 

report, nunod. 

republic, piiblig. 

request, beg. 

to rescue, savon. 

reticence, sell. 

reticent, seilik. 
j revid, 
( revision. 

revolution, volut. 

reward, mesed. 

rezipik, reciprocal. 

rich, liegik. 

riches, lieg. 

to ride, moniton. 

riddle, rat. 

ridicule, kof. 

rig, _origin. 
-ik, original. 

riget, authority, control. 

right, det, git. 

ring, lin. 

ripe, madik 

river, flum. 

road, veg. 

to rob, lapinon. 

robbery, lapin. 

Rome, Rom. 

room, cem. 

root, vul. 

rop, interruption. 
-6n, to interrupt. 



Rom, Rome. 

rose, lol. 

rouble, ruab. 

rough, liidik. 

ruab, rouble. 

rule, nom. 

to rule, solon. 

ruler, solel. 

to run, gonon. 

rural, lanedik. 

Russia, Lusan. 

Russian, lusanel, lusanik. 

sab, sand. 

to sacrifice, vitimon.' 

safe, sefik. 

sagit, arrow. 

sagon[bosieke], to say, tell. 

sak, bag. 

sal, salt. 

sale, sel. 

salt, sal. 

to salute, glidon. 

sam, example. 

-ad, copy, specimen, 
same, ot. 

to sanction, zepon. 
sand, sab. 
sanel, physician. 
sap, wisdom, 
-ik, wise. 
satin, silk. 
saun, health. 

-ik, healthy, well. 

-lik, healthful. 

-6n, to convalesce, 



savage 

savage, foetab, foetik. 
savings, spal. 
savings-bank, spalastit. 
savon, to rescue, 
to say, sagon. 
sago, even, 
sak, question. 

-on, to ask. 
sal, hall, 
savon, to hide, 
satik, sufficient, enough, 
scandal, skan. 
scheme, jemad. 
scholar, julel. 
school, jul. 
science, nol. 
scientific, nolik. 
scissors, Jim. 
sculpture, kod. 
se, out of. 
sea, mel. 

search (for), siik, -on. 
seat, sied. 
to seat, siadon. 
secret, klan, klanik. 
section, sekion. 
sedon, to send, to forward, 

to ship, 
to see, logon. 
see there ! ekusi ! 
sefik, safe. 
segiv, expenditure, 
segivam, edition. 
segolon, to go out 



103 serve 

segun, according to. 

seil, reticence. 

-ik, reticent. 

-on, to keep silent. 
seiston, to lie. 
seiton, to lay. 
sek, consequence, result. 
sekion, section. 
sekusadon, to excuse. 
sel, sale. 

-on, to sell, 
seled, rarity, 
to sell, selon. 
sem, some. 
sembal, a certain. 
sen, feeling. 
to send, sedon. 
sened, exterior. 
senit, attention. 

-on, to attend, give 

attention to. 
sense, siam. 
sentab, cent, 
sentence, set. 
sep, sepulchre, tomb. 
sepet, expression, 
to separate, teilon. 
seplan, explanation. 

-on, to explain. 
September, ziilul. 
sepulchre, sep. 
serious, fefik. 
sermon, pred. 
servant, diinan. 
to serve, dunon. 



sesum 104 similar 


sesum, exception. 


sick, maladik. 


-ii, excepting. 


sickness, malad. 


set, sentence. 


sid, seed. 


setopam, exposition. 


side, flan. 


setul = ziilul. 


sied, seat. 


seval, election. 


-on, to sit. 


seven, vel. 


sif, citizen. 


severe, jalepik. 


to sign, disopenon. 


sevon, to know, be 


sikod, therefore. 


acquainted with. 


sil, sky, heaven. 


to sew, nagon. 


silab, syllable. 


shadow, jad. 


silef, silver. 


shake, lemuf, -on. 


silence, nepiik. 


shame, Jem. 


silk, satin. 


share of stock, lakif. 


Silop, Asia. 


sharpness, jap, -ik. 
she, of. 


silver, silef. 
simple, balik. 


sheep, jip. 


simul, pretense. 


shell, jal. 


SIN, -on. 


shelter, jel, tegop. 


since, sis. 


shepherd, jepel. 
ship, naf. 


to sing, kaniton. 
single, dabalik. 




sir, sol. 


shoe, juk. 


sis, since. 


to shoot, juton. 
shore, jol. 


sit, system, 
to sit, siedon. 


short, blefik. 


six, mal. 


shove, dlan, -on. 


skan, scandal. 


to show, jonon. 
to shut, kikon. 


skam, vagrancy, 
j skil, 


si, yes. 


{ skill. 


siadon, to seat. 


SKIN. 


siam, sense. 


skit, leather. 


sibin, existence. 


sky, sil. 


-6n, to exist. 


similar, siimik. 



slaf 

(slaf, 

( slave. 

sleep, slip, -on. 
( slen, 
I slenderness. 

slep, grade. 

slet, slate. 

to slide down, disislifbn. 

slip, sleep, -on. 

slop, inclination. 
-on, to incline. 
-el, partisan, adherent. 

slud, resolution, decision. 

sma- (prefix), small. 

smal, smallness. 
-ik, small. 

small, smalik. 

smallness, smal. 
j smel, -on, 
j smell. 

smil, laugh, -on. 

smile, smiil, -on. 
j smok, -on, 
( smoke, 
j smoothness, 
( smuf (-ik, -on). 

smiil, smile. 

snek, snake, serpent. 

snob, knot. 

snow, nif, -on. 

so, also, so. 

so, so, thus. 

soal, solitude. 

-ik, solitary, alone, 
j soap, 
1 sob. 



105 sol 



society, klub, sog. 

sod, but. 

soft, miiedik. 

sog, society. 
-ik, social. 

sol, sun. 
C solat, 
{ soldier. 

soldel = baliidel. 

solemn, zelik. 

solitary, soalik. 

solitude, soal. 

solutik, loose. 

som, such. 

-ik, such (kind of). 

some, ans, anik. 

somebody, ek. 

some one, ek. 

something, bos. 

sometimes, sotimo. 

SON. 

song, kanit. 

soon, suno. 
j sort, 
{ sot. 

sotimo, sometimes. 

soul, Ian. 

sound, ton. 

south, suliid. 

sovemo, so much, to such 

a degree. 
sol, Sir, Mr. 

-al, lord. 

-on, to rule. 

-el, ruler. 



soton 



1 06 



strength 



soton, sotob, I ought. 
( space, 
( spad. 
spat, walk. 

-in, walking-stick. 
-on, to walk. 
spal. frugality. 

-astit, savings-bank. 
-ik, frugal, 
to speak, piikon. 
special, patik. 
specimen, samad. 
spel, hope, -on. 
spid, haste (-on), 
spinner, spulel. 
spirit, tikal. 
spod, correspondence. 

-on, to correspond. 
spon, guarantee, 
spring, fon, flolatim. 
spulel, spinner. 
stabon, to establish. 
stad, state, situation. 

-on, to be in a certain 

state or condition, 
j staf, 
{ staff. 

stain, sten. 

stamp, postage, mak. 
j to stand, 
{ stanon. 

star, stel. 

state, stad, tat. 

station (railroad) stejen. 

staud, restaurant. 

to stay, stebon. 



steab, pound sterling, . 

to steal, tifon. 

steam, stem. 

stebon, to stay. 

sted, straightness, -ik. 

steel, dulin. 

steif, endeavor, -on. 

stejen, station, d6pot. 

stel, star. 

stem, steam. 

-abot, steamboat. 

-acin, steam-engine. 

-anaf, steamship. 
sten, stain. 
steniid, strength. 
-ik, strong. 
step, -on, advance, 
stepfather, lufat. 

j stiff, 
{ stink. 

still, takik, stilik. 

stim, honor, -on. 

stip, condition, stipulation. 

stit, establishment. 

stom, weather. 
( ston, 
( stone. 

story, kon. 

stove, fon. 

stool, stulil. 

stof, matter. 

straight, stedik. 

straightness, sted. 

street, siit. 

strength, steniid. 



strike 

to strike, flapon. 

strong, steniidik. 
j stud, -on, 
( study, to study. 

stul, chair, 
-il, stool. 

stum, instrument. 

stun, astonishment, 
j stup, stupidity, -ik, -el. 
( stupidity. 

stiil, style. 

stum, esteem. 

su, on. 

suadon, to persuade, con- 
vince. 

suam, sum, total. 

suam, amount, price. 

subject, yeg. 

subsat, noun. 

to subscribe for, bonedon. 

subscription, boned. 

to succeed, plopon (he 
succeeds, plopos ome). 

such, som, somik. 

sud, deafness. 

suf, tolerance. 
-ad, patience. 
-on, to endure, tolerate. 

sugar, jueg. 

sukon, to follow. 

suliid, south. 

sum, suam, suam. 

sumon, to take. 

sun, sol. 

Sunday, baliidel. 

suno, soon. 



107 te 

siik, search, -on. 
siim, similarity. 
sut, street. 
svin, hog. 
swamp, lulak. 
to swear, yulon. 
swift, vifik. 
sword, den. 

ta, against, in opposition 

to. 

(tab, 
| table. 

tabled, branch (depart- 
ment). 
taen, tannery. 

-on, to tan. 
tailor, teladel. 
to take, sumon. 
take care ! kauto ! 
to take place, ziton. 
takon, to be quiet, to stop. 
tal, earth. 
( talen, 
{ talent. 
tan, tie, band, 
tannery, taen. 
Talop, Australia, 
taste, gut. 

tat, state (government). 
Tal, Italy. 

-ik, Italian (adjectiv). 
-el, Italian (noun). 
tano, then. 
tav, journey. 

-el, traveler, 
te, only. 



teach 

to teach, tidon. 
teacher, tidel. 
tear (teer), dlen. 
teat, theatre. 
ted, commerce. 

-el, merchant. 

-on, to trade. 
tef, relation. 

-ii, relating to. 

-amik, relativ. 
teg, cover, -on. 

-op, shelter. 
teilon, to separate. 
tel, two, 2. 

telad, tailor-work. 
-el, tailor. 
-op, tailor shop. 
teldik, many a. 
f telegaf, -on. 
{ telegraph. 

( telefon, . 
{ telephone, 
to tell, sagon. 
temip, cowardice, 
tempest, tep. 
ten, bals. 

tenon, to stretch, extend. 
-al, eternity. 
-alo, for ever. 

j tened, 
{ tent. 

tenth, balsid. 

teniid, temptation. 

tep, tempest. 

terror, jek. 

tevon, to wander, migrate. 



108 tid 

test, bluf. 

to testify, noelon. 

than, ka. 

to thank, danon [eke]. 

thanks, dan. 

that, das, dat, et, ut. 

theatre, teat. 

themselves, oms it, ofs it. 

then, tano. 

there, us, or untranslatable. 

therefore, sikod. 

thick, bigik. 

thief, tif. 

thing, din. 

to think, tikon. 

third, Yz, kildil. 

this, this one, at. 

this year, ayelo. 

though, do. 

thought, tik. 

thousand, mil. 

thread, fad. 

three, kil. 

throat, gug. 

throne, tlon. 

through, da, dub. 

thrust, jok. 

thus, also. 

thunder, tot, -on. 

ti, almost. 

tiad, title. 

tid, instruction. 

-el, teacher. 

-on, to teach. 

-up, lesson, lesson-time. 

-am, instruction. 



tif 

tif, thief. 

-on, to steal. 
tik, thought. 
-on, to think. 
-av, logic. 
-al, mind, spirit, 
till, jus, jii. 
till now, jiinu. 
Jtim, 
( time. 

timid, tlepik. 
TIN. 

TIP, extremity. 
tlat, draft, for drawing 

money. 
tlap, trap. 
tlat, treachery, 
tlep, fright. 

-on, to frighten, 
-ik, timid. 
tlid, step, on. 
tlod, consolation. 
tlon, throne, 
tlup, troop, 
to, al. 

to-day, adelo. 
tof, drop. 
torn, torment, 
tomb, sep. 
ton, sound. 

-ab, letter (of alphabet), 
tongue, lineg. 
too, tu. 
tooth, tut. 
top, place, locality, 
top, lop. 



109 tlid 



total, suam. 
tour, tiid. 
tourist, tiidel. 
tovon, to lift, 
towards, al. 
town, zif. 
tob, trouble. 

tok, exchange, barter, -on, 
tolaton, to treat. 
toton, to thunder, 
trade, feb. 
to trade, tedon. 
transcript, depenad. 
to translate, lovepolon. 
translation, lovepolam. 
treasure, div. 
to treat, tolaton. 
tree, bim. 
trial, bliif. 
troop, tlup. 
trouble, tob. 
true, velatik. 
truth, velat. 
tu, too, excessivly. 
tub, barrel. 
tudelo = adelo. 
tug, virtue. 
tuged, community. 
-ik, common, 
turn, hundred, 
tup, disturbance, -on. 
tusdel = kiliidel. 
tut, tooth. 
tuvon, to find. 
tiid, tour. 



two 



no 



vidik 



two, tel. 
tyrant, lusolel. 
u, ud, or. 

uf ud, either or. 

umo, more. 

uncle, nok. 

to understand, kapalon. 

ungrateful, nedanik. 

union, balad. 

to unite, balon. 

United States, Pebaltats, 

Tats Pebalol. 
unity, yum. 
universe, val. 
university, niver. 
us, there, 
use, geb, -on. 
useful, pofudik. 

Ut, that (before relativ). 

iil- (prefix), original, primitiv. 

va, whether. 

vab, wagon, carriage. 

vaf, weapon. 

vagik, empty, vacant. 

vagrant, skam. 

vain, vanik. 

val, universe. 

valadon, to wait for, to 

await, 
valemik, universal. 

valik, all. 

valikodik, general, 
valuable, voladik. 
value, volad. 
valiid, power (-ik). 



vam, warmth (-ik). 

vanik, vain, deceptiv. 

vat, water. 

vatiikon, to wash. 

vadik, wrong. 

vagodelo, every morning. 

ve, along. 

vedon, to become. 

veg, road. 
-ii, via. 

veit, width (-ik). 

vekom, welcome. 

vel, seven, 7. 

velat, truth (-ik). 

velat, exactness (-ik). 

velib, verb. 

veliidel, Saturday. 

ven, when. 

vendel, evening. 

venod, poison, venom. 

venud, grace. 

veniid, risk, venture, -on, 

verb, velib. 

verse, lian. 

vesdel = foliidel. 

vesiid, west. 

vet, weight. 

veiit, importance (ik). 
f to vex, 
{ vexadon. 

via, vegii. 

viaton, to prevent. 

victim, vitim. 

victory, vikod. 

vidik, broad. 



vie- 



in 



weave 



vie- (prefix), white-. 

vien, wind. 

vietik, white. 

vif, quickness, swiftness. 

-ik, quick, swift. 
vig, week. 
vikod, victory. 
vil, will. 
vin, wine. 
vindit, vengeance, 
vin eg, sign, gesture. 
j viod, 
( violation. 
viotop, laundry. 
vip, wish, -on. 
virtue, tug. 
visedik, prudent. 
VISIT, -on. 
vitim, victim. 

-on, to sacrifice. 
vitb'n, to avoid, 
viud, widowhood. 
-el, widower, 
viv, web. 

-on, to weave. 
vo, indeed, in fact. 
voad, leak. 
vob, work, -on. 
vobuk, work (book). 
vokon, to call. 
vol, world. 

-apiik, world- language. 

-apiikatidel, teacher of 

the world-language. 
volut, revolution, 
vom, woman, wife, Mrs. 
-iil, Miss. 



vot, alteration. 

-on, to alter. 

-am, (an) alteration. 

-ik, other, another. 
vod, word. 

-asbuk, dictionary. 
vog, voice. 

-od, vote. 

vokads, the letters a, 6, ii. 
volad, value (-ik). 

-alised, price list 
vono, once, formerly, 
vul, root. 

-ik, radical, 
vum, worm. 
vun, wound, -on. 
vut, rage. 
viilik, arbitrary, 
wagon, vab. 

to wait for, valadon [eki]. 
waiter, botel. 
walk, spat, -on. 
walking-stick, spatin. 
wall, mon. 
war, klig. 
warm, vamik. 
warmth, vam. 
to warn, monedon. 
to wash, vatiikon. 
watch, glok, pokaglok. 
to watch, galon. 
water, vat. 
weakness, fib. 
wealth, lieg (-ik). 
to wear, polon. 
to weave, vivon. 



web 

web, viv. 

week, vig. 

weight, vet. 

welcome, vekom. 

west, vesiid. 

weather, stom. 

what ? kis ? 

what kind of? kimik? 

wheel, luib. 

when, kii, keliip, ven. 

when ? kiiip ? 

where, kelop, ko. 

where ? kiop ? kiplad ? 

whether, va. 

which ? kiom ? 

while, du. 

white, vietik. 

who, kel. 

who ? kim ? kif ? 

whole, 161, lolik. 

why ? kikod ? 

wide, vidik. 

widow, jiviudel. 

widower, viudel. 

wife, vom. 

wild, foetik. 

will, vil, -on. 

wind, vien. 

wine, vin. 

wing, flitad. 

winter, nifatim. 

wisdom, sap. 

wise, sapik. 

wish, vip. 

with, ko, me. 



112 yeg 

without, nen. 

witness, noel. 

woman, vom. 

wonder, milag. 

wood, boad. 

woods, fot. 

wool, lain. 

word, vod. 

work, vob, -on, vobuk. 

world, vol. 

worm, vum. 

to worship, leplekon. 

worthy, digik. 

wound, vun, -on. 

to write, penon. 

wrong, negitik, vadik. 

xam, examination. 

xan, ascent (-on). 

xol, ox. 

xiid, oxid. 

ya, already. 

yad, yard (court). 

yagon, to hunt. 

yam, lament, -on. 

yan, door. 

yanul=balul. 

yard, yad. 

yan, yarn. 

ye, yed, yet, nevertheless. 

year, yel. 

yearly, yelsik. 

yeb, grass. 

yed = ye. 

yeg, subject. 



113 



yel, year. 

-sik, yearly. 
-iip, space of a year. 
( yelibik, 
{ yellow. 

yeltum, century, 
yes, si. 

yesdelo = adelo. 
yet, nog. 

{to yield, 
yilon. 
yof, joy. 

-on, to make joyful. 
(yok, 
| yoke. 
j yonder, 
( yono. 
you, ol, ols. 
young, yunik. 
yourself, ol it. 
yourselves, ols it. 
youth, yun, yunel. 
yud, Judaism. 
-el, Jew. 
-ik, Jewish. 
yuf, help, -on. 
yul, oath. 

-on, to swear, 
yulibik, blue. 
Yulop, Europe. 

-el, -ik, European. 
yulul = velul. 
yum, unity, concord, 
yun, youth. 
-ik, young, 
-el, young person, 

youth. 

-lik, youthful. 
yunul = malul. 



yiif, assistance. 

yul, bet. 

za, about, towards, nearly. 

zad, delicacy. 

zadel =veliidel. 

zal, festival. 

ze, almost, nearly. 

zeal, zil. 

zeil, aim. 

zel, solemnity. 

zelad, certainty. 

zen, ashes. 

zendel, noon, mid-day. 

zenod, centre, middle. 

-ik, central. 
zepon, to sanction. 
zesiid, necessity. 

-on, to be necessary. 
zi, around. 

zib, food, article of diet. 
zibasal, dining-room. 
zif, town. 
zigad, cigar. 
zil, zeal. 

-ik, zealous. 
ziton, to take place. 
zog, hesitation. 
zog, neglect, -on. 
zot, ticket. 
zugon^ to draw. 
zunon, to be angry. 
ziid, acid. 
ziil, nine. 
ziilul, September. 
ziim, circuit. 
ziip, adherence (to a party 

or sect) . 

-el, partisan, adherent. 
ziit, guitar, cither. 



KEY TO THE EXERCISES. 



EXERCISE I . 

1. Buks. Dels. Doabs. Dogs. Doms. Gans. Tips. Mans. Mugs. 
Muls. Puls. Vigs. Yels. 

2. Buks, dels, mans, doms, mugs, muls, gans, puls, vigs, doabs. 

3. Ol in the first sentence ; ols in the second. 

4. Tel, lul, kilsekil, folsetel, kil, folsebal, mal, telselul, luls, velselul, 
baltum, vel, velsevel, veltum velsevel, velmil veltum velsevel, jol, balsejol, 
mal, ztilseziil, balselul, balsekil, malsefol, lulsebal, jfllsefol, velsevel, kiltum 
kilsekil, balmil joltum jolsevel, balsetel. 

5. Mans lul; puls kil; yels balsetel; doabs tels; yels bals; muls kil; mugs 
mal; doabs luls; doms balsemal; buks kilmil; jips baltum; puls lulselul; 
yels kilsetel e muls bals; dels vel; vig bal; dels kils, mul bal; dels kiltum 
malselul, muls balsetel, vigs lulsetel, yei bal; doabs telmil veltum malseztil. 

6. 7. 10 men; one goose; we; three months; four houses; 100 years; two 
sheep; nine mice; twelve dollars; 200 books; twelve months; one year; 
365 days; one year; YOU; we two. 

EXERCISE II. 

Fatas, pules, mana, doge, gans. 

The man has a dog. The man has two dogs. The boy has two dogs 
and one sheep. The dog sees the goose. The boy sees the dog. The 
man gives the dog to the boy, or the man gives the boy the dog. The 
boy gives the goose to the man. The man gives the boy three dollars. 
The dog has four feet. The goose has two feet. The man has two feet 
and two hands. The man's dog has four feet. The man's father gives 
four dollars to the boy. (The next sentence is incorrect; doab should be 
doabi; it will then read :) Father ! the man gives one dollar to the boy. 
Who brings the dogs to the man? The boy brings the dogs to the man. 
Who has money ? The father has money. 

Answers : Pul labom dogi. Man givom dogi pule. 

Dog logom gani. Man givom dogi pule. 

Man 



Kim labom dogi? Pul labom dogis tel. Man labom dogis kil. Dog 
labom futis fol. Pul labom futis tel. Kim labom namis tel ? Man givom 
moni. Man givom moni pule. Fat pula givom doabi mane. Yel labom 
mulis balsetel. Mul labom delis kils. Vig labom delis vel. Del labom 
dilpis telsefol. Kim blinom gani ? Kim logom dogi? Kim logom jipis 
tel ? Kime man givom moni ? Kime pul blinom moni ? Pul blinom 
doabis lul fate. 



KEY TO THE EXERCISES. 115 

EXERCISE III. 

I am. I give. I bring. I speak. I go. I come. I have a book. 

We give money. We have two books. I give money to the man. We 
bring books to the boy. We bring the boy's books. 

Ptlkob. Golob. Labob gani. Labobs bukis. Labob bukis lul. Givobs 
moni mane. Givob doabis lul pule. Blinobs dogi mane. Blinob bukis. 
Blinob bukis pulas. Blinob bukis pules. Givobs bukis pules. 

EXERCISE IV. 

You have the book. You speak. You go. You have a father. You 
bring me a book. I bring you books. You give money to the boys. 
You come and we go. We speak and you hear. 

Labol buki. Labels bukis. Plikols e lilobs. Logol mani. KOmob 
e golols. Komol e golob Labol bukis. Givol bukis pules. Ptikol obe. 
Givob moni ole. Givol moni obe. 

KOmom. Golof. Givom moni mane. Labof buki. Blinom dogi 
pule. Pttkof. Logom mani e puli. Givom moni obe. 

EXERCISE V. 

He teaches. Who teaches? The man teaches. He sells books. Who 
sells books? / sell books. He gives money. Who gives money ? The 
father gives money. The man teaches the boy. The merchant sells 
books. The man drinks water. The woman drinks wine. The cat eats 
the mouse. The boy eats bread. 

What does he give the boy? He gives the boy money and bread. 
What does she bring to the man ? She brings water. What does the 
woman eat ? She eats bread and drinks water. What does the man eat ? 
He eats bread and drinks wine. The sheep eats grass. 

Man dlinom vini. Vom dlinof vati. Fat pula givom monivome. Mot 
blinof bodi pule. 

Kttmom. Kim koTnom? Man kOmom. Fidom bodi. Fidob bodi. 
Givom doabi. Kim givom doabi ? Fat givom doabi. Man labom dogi. 
Pul lemom buki. Fat dlinom vini. Mot dlinof vati. Dog logom kati. 
Pul fidom bodi. Kisi fidom ? Fidom bodi. Kim fidom bodi ? Kisi givof 
pule? Givof moni pule. Kisi vom fidof ? Fidof bodi e miti. Dog logom 
jipis kil. 

Fidob miti, fidol bodi ; dlinom vati, dlinof vini. Labobs bukis, labels 
logis, laboms lilis. ^ 

EXERCISE VI . 

They teach. Who teach? The men teach. They sell books. The 
merchants sell books to the boys. They have money. Who have money ? 
The merchants have money. The men eat bread and meat. The women 
drink wine and water. The man writes a letter. The merchants write 
letters. The boys write letters. The women write letters to the men. 

Dogs logoms jipis. Jips logoms dogi. Jip logom dogi. Mans penoms 
penedis. Puls logoms tonabis. Voms dlinofs vati. Mans dlinoms vini. 
Jip fidom yebi. 



116 KEY TO THE EXERCISES. 

EXERCISE VII. 

The man is a merchant. The week (or a week) is seven days. The 
day is a part of the week. The hour is a part of the day. The month is a 
part of the year. Water and wine are drinks. It snows. It thunders. 
One sees animals. One drinks water. One eats bread (Bread is eaten). 
One reads books (Books are read). 

Pul binom julel (not juleli). Dogs e jips binoms nims. Del binom 
dil yela. Bod binom fid. Vin binom dim. Vat binom dlin. Binob 
tedel. Binol julel. Binols julels. Totos. Fidon miti. Nifos. Sagon, 
das binol julel. Dog fidom bodi. Dogs e jips binoms nims. Sagon das 
to"tos. Logon, das nifos. 

EXERCISE VIII. 

Jiflen. Vom sanela. Jiviudel. Jilautel. Vomill Maria binof jilanel. 
Jisanel. Jijeval. Jiblod. Jinelijel. Jimatel. 

EXERCISE IX. 

January is the first month. July is the seventh month. Tuesday is 
the third day of the week. December is the twelfth month of the year. 
Three o'clock. What o'clock (what time) is it ? It is ten o'clock. 

Vellidel binom del velid viga. Babul binom mul balsebalid. Binom 
dlip folid. 

EXERCISE X. 

My teacher teaches five boys. Who is your teacher ? Our teacher 
has twenty-four scholars. Our language is English. My father has three 
sons and two daughters; so I have two brothers and two sisters. We are 
five children (or there are five children of us). Our father loves his child- 
ren. Our mother loves her children. Our father and mother love their 
children. 

Tidel obik liladom buki. Fat olik labom dogis fol. Kim binom tidel 
olsik ? Tidel obsik binom flentel. Fat e mot obsik lOfoms cilis omsik. 
Kim binom fat obsik ? Fat obsik binom matel mota obsik. Fat olik e 
mot obik binoms flens. Ptik tidela obik binom flentaptlk. Tidel olik 
liladom bukis obik. 

EXERCISE XI. 

This house is our home. That man has three children ; I know the 
children, but not the man himself. This town has a hundred houses and 
seven hundred persons. Men, women and children are human beings. 
You know the teacher and the merchant and I know the same men. The 
man who lives in that house is an author and writes books. 

Lan at binom obik. Lfldob in dom et. Mans tit, kels lOdoms in zif et, 
sevoms obis. Lttdobs in zif ot. Nims at binoms jevals. 

EXERCISE XII. 

I know the man who writes these books. The man, whom I know, 
writes these books. Who writes books ? The author. What is an 
author ? An author is the man who writes books. Who is that lady who 
has the dog? That lady is Doctress B. ; her husband is our physician. 

Logob mani ut, kel givom moni pules. Kim sevom latiteli buka at ? 
Jimatel sanela sevof mani ut kel binom lautel buka. Kis binom tedel? 
Tedel binom man kel lemom e selom dinis. Kif binof vom et? Vom et 
binof jitidel kel tidof pulis e jipulis. 



KEY TO THE EXERCISES. 117 

EXERCISE XIII . 

This man is good. Good men have many friends. Dear Sir : I 
write you a short letter, and hope that you are well. I am a friend of 
Volaptik, and it is said that Volaptik has many friends in YOUR country. 
That person, who has a bad heart, has many enemies. Nouns in English 
are masculin, feminin and neuter; in Volaptik and in French they are 
masculin and feminin. In December we have short days and long nights. 

flen oba lofik ! Pened ola binom blefik e ladlik. Labob flenis 
nemOdik kels penoms penedis lonedik obe. Valiks mens gudik laboms 
ladis gudik e lofoms dinis gudik. God binom fat menas valik. Mens ut 
valik, kel lofoms Godi, binoms gudik. God binom lautel valikas din as 
gudik. Binob flen ola ladlik, kel spelob das binol saunik. Peneds, kelis 
penols obes, binoms blefik. Kif binof lad, kele penol penedis lonedik ? 
Lad et binof vom sanela B; it no binof jisanel. 

EXERCISE XIV. 

God does not love bad men (persons). Bad men do not love God. 
Nouns in Volaplik are not neuter; they have only two genders, not three. 
Lifeless things are of the masculin gender. Merchants, who are acquainted 
with Volaptik, correspond with the whole world. Who are acquainted 
with Volaptik ? All educated persons in the whole world. 

No logob bukis kil obik. Buk kiom binom gudik ? Buk at no binom 
badik. No labob mttdikis bukis gudik. Gens lio-mOdik binoms in vola- 
ptik? Gens tel binoms in volaptik ed in flentaptik; gens kil binoms in 
nelijaptik e deutaptik. Studon volapiiki in lans valik vola lolik. 

EXERCISE XV. 

We eat three times in the day, twenty -one times in the week. This 
book teaches me Volaptik for the first time. That man, who is a German, 
speaks English badly, but is well acquainted with Volaptik. The days 
go quickly and we have not much time. 

Dog fidom vifiko. Penol gudiko. Ptikobs volaptiki badiko. Penob 
penedis kil, telna in vig. Lemobs nedelidiko bukis. Lemobs bukis 
nedelidik. Tedel lemom nedelidiko e selom delidiko. 

EXERCISE X VI . 

1 am older than he. This book is better than that one. Our house is 
not so large as yours; it is smaller. You write better than I. I am your 
most devoted friend. I hopeyou are in good health, most cherished friend. 
Volaptik is the easiest language in the whole world. 

Binob saunikum ka ol. Labob namis gletikum ka ol. Dog labom 
futis gletikum ka kat. Buk kiom binom gudiktin in vol lolik ? No labob 
bukis so modik as ol, ab liladob modikumis. Kiom binom piik nefikulikun 
in vol lolik? No sevob ptiki kel binom nefikulikum ka volaptik. 

EXERCISE XVII. 

Most valued friend : I have received your short letter and regret that 
you have been ill. I hope that you will soon have got better and that you 
will visit us next month. 

O flen lofik ! Pened lonedik keli apenol obe, eplidom obe levemo. 
Spelob das uvedob suno saunikum, e das ologob oli denu oyelo. 



118 KEY TO THE EXERCISES. 

EXERCISE XVIII. 

English is spoken in England, the United States, Canada, Australia 
and other countries. Volapiik will be taught in all schools. Volaptik was 
invented by Mr. Schleyer. Fruits are sold dear this year; they were sold 
cheap last year. A large house is building (being built) in Twenty-third 
street. 

Cils mOdik padadukoms in juls Melopa; mOdiks pedadukoms, e mo'diks 
podadukoms. Buks paseloms fa tedel, kela lemacem binom in stlt Folse- 
telid. Buks at no binonis obik; peseloms. Piik kiom paptikom in Melop ? 

EXERCISE XIX. 

I like to eat fruit. I do not wish to read many books, but good ones. 
To have been silent is often better than to have spoken. No man can 
know everything. Who shall be able to count the stars of the heaven or 
the sands of the sea ? I am in school to study, not to play. I will buy 
books to learn Volapiik. You ought to study Volapuk in order to be able 
to speak with all nations. 

Lofob liladOn bukis gudik. Vilob logo" n stelis. LiladOn binos gudikum 
ka pledfln. Sotobs lemOn domi, if kanobs lemo" n omi nedelidiko. Man at 
kanom liladttn ptikis mal, e piikOn ptikis kil; lOfom studOn e labom timi al 
studOn. Binos gudikum elOfOn ed epo"ltido"n ka no elOffin. 

EXERCISE XX. 

Honored Sir : Having read your interesting work, and not being 
able to understand some parts, I write [to] you this letter to ask whether 
you will explain the following sentences. 

so"! pelestimOl ! Egeto"! penedi olik e no elabol timi al penOn ole 
avigo, spelob das osekusadol fezogi nepOvito"!. 

EXERCISE XXI. 

Givolad doabis fol pule at pOfik. SekusadolOs libi keli sumob. Visit- 
olstts obis in dom obas nulik. GepukolOs suno penede at. Funolttz sneki 
et! BlibolOd in do"m. PotolOs obe samadis kil buka nulik ola. LasumolOs 
glidis oba ladlik. Pul alik sumomo"d buki omik e liladomOd. 

Give the poor man some bread. Please come to visit us in our new 
house. Please excuse me for not having answered your letter sooner. Go 
out of the house! Please mail me four copies of the English dictionary. 
Let every boy take his pen and write. Please remain in the garden. 

EXERCISE XXII. 

1 would like this man if he were better. If we went walking every 
day it would be healthful. If you should go walking to-day, please 
bring the new book, which I ordered, from the bookstore. It would be a 
great pleasure to me to receive a long letter from you. If it were not so 
warm I should like to visit our friends in town. 

If alogob-la tideli adelo, agivobo" v ome buki keli vilom logo' n. Buk at 
abinomo'v pOftidik ole if avilol-la studOn flentapttki. If ilogol-lamaniat in 
gad, iptikomo" v ole. If atavol-la in Yulop, alilol-la ptikis mOdik. 



KEY TO THE EXERCISES. 119 

EXERCISE XXIII. 

How do you do, sir ? I am well, thank you. Have you been long in 
town? Not long; I came from Madrid a short time ago. Is Madrid a 
beautiful city ? It is very beautiful; I should have liked to stay there longer. 
Where is your home? My home is in Boston, but I have many friends in 
this town. Have you studied French? I have studied French, but I 
cannot speak it well. Do you understand all which you read ? Yes, sir; 
nearly all. 

Li-elogol fati obik adelo ? No, o sol ! no-li binom in dom ? Li-eliladol 
gasedis adelo ? No elabob timi al liladOn. Liko fat olik stadom adelo ? 
Dani; stadom modo gudikumo. Flens oma mOdik olaboms galodi mo\lik 
al sev<5n osi. 

EXERCISE XXIV. 

I walk every day in my garden. Do you use a cane ? No ; canes are 
used by old men; do you think that I am old? I don't know; I am young, 
but I walk with a cane. Do you eat meat every day ? I do not eat it on 
Fridays. When we were in France we used to drink wine; but now, 
when we are in America, we drink water. How many years were you in 
France ? Three years. 

Li-aidlinol vini ? Aidlinob vini, ab nu dlinob vati. In Flent aidlinon 
vini e no vati. In Beljan piikon flentapuki e nedanapuki. Ptlki kiom 
ptikon in Talop ? Nelijapiikon ; aikiOp nehjels modik binoms, nelijaptlkon. 

EXERCISE XXV. 

I see myself in this mirror. Please seat (place) yourself in that chair. 
Whoever loves himself better than his neighbor is not a true Christian, but 
true Christians love each other. I wash myself every morning. 

Eflapobok me spatin at. Dalobok ladetOn penedi at ole. Ofunolok. 
SiadolokOs e mekolokos kotenik. 

EXERCISE XXVI. 

LETTER. 

January 16, 1887. 

Respected Sir : I have received your letter of December 3ist, of last 
year, and rejoice very much that you are in good health and that Volapilk 
is making such (so) great progress with you. Concerning the books, 
which you wish me to buy, I shall go into the city to-morrow and look for 
them. We are all well and greet you and your family. 

O sOl lofik ! Begob das opotol gasedi olik obe du yel bal, ladetdl omi as 
pepenos diso. Potob ole doabi bal in pelam e blibob, 

Flen olik. 

In Volaptik one places the adjectiv after the noun and the objectiv after 
the verb. 

In nelijaptik, aipladon ladyeki bifu subsat. In deutaptik kimafal 
paipladom (or aipladon kimifali) sotimo bif velib. 

FIN. 



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there was begun a new course of instruction, entitled 



F*ROQRESSIV LESSONS IN VOLAF>IJK:, 

With special reference to Commercial Correspondence. 

BY CHARLES E. SPRAGUE. 

These lessons are written in a familiar and easy style, giving 
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This department of THE OFFICE will embrace any and all other 
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